child welfare


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child welfare,

services provided for the care of disadvantaged children. Foundling institutions for orphans and abandoned children were the earliest attempts at child care, usually under religious auspices. At first the goal was to provide minimum physical subsistence, but services have been expanded to include social and psychological help. In the late 18th cent., a movement developed around the idea that children should not simply be regarded as small adults, and such educators as Rousseau, Pestalozzi, and Froebel were discussing children's special needs at the same time that the Industrial Revolution intensified the nonagricultural exploitation of child laborchild labor,
use of the young as workers in factories, farms, and mines. Child labor was first recognized as a social problem with the introduction of the factory system in late 18th-century Great Britain.
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. In the 19th cent. many religious and private institutions were organized to take care of children who were orphaned, destitute, or handicapped. In child-welfare legislation, the British Children's Charter Act of 1908 and the Ohio Children's Code Commission of 1911 marked a new era. The idea that it was the responsibility of the community to provide children with the advantages that their parents could not supply is a 20th-century development. In this category are free school lunches; medical, dental, and psychiatric services and child guidance clinics in schools; playgrounds; children's courts; special schools for handicapped children; and care in foster families for children of broken homes. Infant and child clinics are often provided by municipalities. Many social welfaresocial welfare
or public charity,
organized provision of educational, cultural, medical, and financial assistance to the needy. Modern social welfare measures may include any of the following: the care of destitute adults; the treatment of the mentally ill; the
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 agencies finance summer camps for both healthy and handicapped children. In the United States child welfare services are administered through the Administration for Children and Families within the U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services. A series of new child welfare programs were passed by Congress in the 1960s. These included the Child Nutrition Act, the Head Start Program, and the Foster Grandparent Program. The International Union for Child Welfare (1920) organized relief for child victims of major international and national disasters. The United Nations Children's FundUnited Nations Children's Fund
(UNICEF), a specialized fund of the United Nations. It was established in 1946 as the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund, and became a permanent part of the United Nations in 1953, when it acquired its current name (but retained
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 (UNICEF, 1946) targets malnutrition and helps reestablish children's services destroyed in war. Current child welfare concerns include child abusechild abuse,
physical, sexual, or emotional maltreatment or neglect of children by parents, guardians, or others responsible for a child's welfare. Physical abuse is characterized by physical injury, usually inflicted as a result of a beating or inappropriately harsh discipline.
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 and child care (see day nurseryday nursery,
 day-care center,
or crèche
, institution for the care of the children of working parents. Originating in Europe in the late 18th and early 19th cent.
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).

Bibliography

See J. Packman, Child Care Needs and Numbers (1968); D. Zietz, Child Welfare (2d ed. 1969); L. Costin, Child Welfare (new ed. 1972); A. Kahn and S. Kamerman, Social Services in International Perspective (1980), Helping America's Families (1982), and Child Support (1987); V. Zelizer, Pricing the Priceless Child (1985); A. Kadushin and J. A. Martin, Child Welfare Services (4th ed. 1988).

References in periodicals archive ?
PPC's latest annual State of Child Welfare report documents some of the accomplishments of the commonwealth's child welfare system, including a decline in the number of children entering foster care and an ongoing reduction in the overall foster care population.
Moore, D-Millbury, to welcome staff from the Child Welfare Society of Kenya and Youth Opportunities Upheld Inc.
A short visit to Canada centring on child welfare policy and practice, highlighted for me the similarities between issues and developments in this country and Australia.
Shapiro cogently demonstrates why child welfare bureaucracies--as inept, inefficient, unwieldy, and overburdened as they may be--should offer multiple, flexible, and innovative options for children and families.
The 37-year-old, who is unmarried and has no children, is an outsider to the state's child welfare system and a surprise choice for the job.
After evaluating the child welfare and foster care systems in 32 states, the federal Department of Health and Human Services concluded that not one of them, including Oregon, is doing a good enough job of protecting children from abuse and finding permanent homes.
PSF, a private organization located in Gainesville, Florida that provides child welfare services to 11 counties in north-central Florida, chose Cubistix to develop a solution utilizing its advanced mapping technology and location analytics to help caseworkers and managers efficiently and cost-effectively visualize and manage their case loads, identify foster homes, fill gaps for services, and manage neighborhoods, all at the spatial level through the use of mapping technology.
Since the agency was created in 1984, child welfare scandals have led to the ousters of five directors, including the resignations of two directors since 1999.
A Manitoba Ministry of Family Services and Housing review team is calling upon the government to demonstrate its commitment to the child welfare system in the province by providing new resources.
And the conditions of the child welfare system are equally horrific.
Two of these disasters--Hurricanes Katrina and Rita--resulted in a prolonged interruption of child welfare services and the dispersion of thousands of children in Louisiana's foster care system to 19 states.
The Child Welfare League of America, the nation's oldest and largest organization of child welfare advocates, partnered with Lambda Legal in 2003 to focus on making child welfare systems more welcoming to LGBT people.

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