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Related to chiliasm: chiliasts


see millenniummillennium
[Lat.,=1,000 years], the period of 1,000 years in which, according to some schools of Christian eschatology, Christ will reign again gloriously on earth. Belief in the millennium, based on Rev. 20, has recurred in Christianity since the earliest times.
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a belief that Jesus Christ will reign on earth for one thousand years. See MILLENARIANISM AND MILLENNIAL MOVEMENTS.



(also millenarianism), a religious doctrine according to which the end of the world will be preceded by a thousand-year “kingdom of God” on earth. Chiliastic ideas expressed in a peculiar form the hopes of the oppressed strata of society for an end to social injustice not in the kingdom of heaven, but on earth.

Chiliasm originated in the Judaic doctrine of the Messiah, and it was further elaborated by the early Christians. Chiliastic motifs are vividly expressed in the Apocalypse—the earliest of the Christian literary works that have been preserved. In the second century A.D., chiliasm gained many adherents in the Roman provinces of Asia Minor. After Christianity became the state religion of the Roman Empire in the fourth century, chiliasts were cruelly persecuted as heretics by the established Christian Church, which viewed chiliasm as an ideology that was hostile to the existing world order and that minimized the church’s “salvational” role.

Chiliasm gained renewed currency in Europe during the Middle Ages, when it was incorporated in many heretical doctrines (such as those taught by the Apostolici) that expressed the antifeudal attitudes of the peasant and plebeian masses. The chiliasts usually preached a gospel of passive social protest. It was only at times of wide-ranging popular movements that chiliasm took on a more active character, advocating the establishment of the “kingdom of God” on earth by force of arms—a course favored, for example, by the Taborites, the Anabaptists of the Münster Commune, and the Fifth Monarchy Men during the English bourgeois revolution of the 17th century. Chiliastic views can subsequently be observed among the Adventists, Jehovah’s Witnesses, and other sects that reflect the ideology and psychology of the petite bourgeoisie.


References in periodicals archive ?
Now, it is questionable whether there are actual examples of this kind of idolatry in the theological tradition, which, unlike the concrete chiliasm of the first kind of eschatological idolatry, would take the form of a spiritualized gnosticism.
105) The cult-following of Subcommandante Marcos and the global excitement aroused by the Zapatistas are a better known reminder of the peasant dimension to anti-capitalist chiliasm.
43-71 and Ernst Werner, "Popular Ideologies in Late Mediaeval Europe: Taborite Chiliasm and Its Antecedents," Comparative Studies in Society and History, 2 (April 1960), 344-63.
Although its doctrine came under repeated challenge from representatives of the Lutheran Church--Missouri Synod involving issues as divergent as chiliasm, the anti-Christ, and predestination, the synod never wavered from its central purpose of extending the ministry of the gospel to the large number of German immigrants continuing to flow into the Midwest.
The volume under review contains Kant's published writing on religion from the mid 1780s until the end of his life: the essays on orientation in thinking ((1786), on theodicy (1791), and on chiliasm (1794), The Conflict of the Faculties (1798), the brief, previously untranslated preface Kant wrote for his student Jachmann's Examination of the Kantian Philosophy of Religion (1800), and most notably a new translation by Di Giovanni of Religion innerhalb der Grenzen der bloBen Vernunft (1793); also included is Wood's translation of student transcriptions of Kant's lectures on philosophy of religion which most likely date from 1783-84.
Hess was evidently the conduit for the chiliasm of Studion.
Thompson's theory of "the chiliasm of despair" might lead one to suspect.
For his part, Bostick distinguishes between the sociological models of millenarianism and chiliasm (Karl Mannheim, Idealogie und Utopie [Bonn: F.
Even the Taborite chiliasm and the Orebite egalitarianism would continue, in a muted form, as a concept of the chosen people (to reprimand the Roman Church) and as a church of the commoners under later Utraquism.