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see millenniummillennium
[Lat.,=1,000 years], the period of 1,000 years in which, according to some schools of Christian eschatology, Christ will reign again gloriously on earth. Belief in the millennium, based on Rev. 20, has recurred in Christianity since the earliest times.
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a belief that Jesus Christ will reign on earth for one thousand years. See MILLENARIANISM AND MILLENNIAL MOVEMENTS.



(also millenarianism), a religious doctrine according to which the end of the world will be preceded by a thousand-year “kingdom of God” on earth. Chiliastic ideas expressed in a peculiar form the hopes of the oppressed strata of society for an end to social injustice not in the kingdom of heaven, but on earth.

Chiliasm originated in the Judaic doctrine of the Messiah, and it was further elaborated by the early Christians. Chiliastic motifs are vividly expressed in the Apocalypse—the earliest of the Christian literary works that have been preserved. In the second century A.D., chiliasm gained many adherents in the Roman provinces of Asia Minor. After Christianity became the state religion of the Roman Empire in the fourth century, chiliasts were cruelly persecuted as heretics by the established Christian Church, which viewed chiliasm as an ideology that was hostile to the existing world order and that minimized the church’s “salvational” role.

Chiliasm gained renewed currency in Europe during the Middle Ages, when it was incorporated in many heretical doctrines (such as those taught by the Apostolici) that expressed the antifeudal attitudes of the peasant and plebeian masses. The chiliasts usually preached a gospel of passive social protest. It was only at times of wide-ranging popular movements that chiliasm took on a more active character, advocating the establishment of the “kingdom of God” on earth by force of arms—a course favored, for example, by the Taborites, the Anabaptists of the Münster Commune, and the Fifth Monarchy Men during the English bourgeois revolution of the 17th century. Chiliastic views can subsequently be observed among the Adventists, Jehovah’s Witnesses, and other sects that reflect the ideology and psychology of the petite bourgeoisie.


References in periodicals archive ?
Mannheim's descriptions of the chiliastic moment in utopianism evoke the euphoric vocabulary around Seattle and S11: 'Chiliastic optimism'; 'Orgiastic energies and ecstatic outbursts'; 'recollection of ecstasy'; 'the intense emotional drive of a sensually alert Chiliastic faith'; 'the ecstatic attitude of the Chiliast'.
Nevertheless, he spreads the table of his apocalyptic and chiliastic wares as widely as he can.
These uprisings which were largely revolts of disgruntled artisans, pieceworkers in the textile trade and peasants often took the air of millinery or chiliastic movements.
12) Dostoevsky wholly concurred, believing, however, that what was true of Comte was true of all the other chiliastic socialisms of his century which elevated etatisme to the status of a religion.
3) There is only a brief recognition of Husserl's achievement, followed by astonishment at the possibility of its chiliastic misdirection from which Voegelin draws the conclusion of the necessity of embarking on a new beginning.
As far as Eubank's decision to debate Marx philosophically, it is interesting to note Mises's contention: "In so far as 'scientific' Socialism is metaphysics, a chiliastic promise of salvation, it would be vain and superfluous to argue scientifically against it.
Almost all the prophecies of Marx and his followers have already proved to be false, but this does not disturb the spiritual certainty of the faithful, any more than it did in the case of chiliastic sects.
Within the Hussites there were various nuances of chiliastic revolts, Wycliffite socially conservative programs, and national sentiment.
This is the principle upon which Kant based what he dubbed "philosophy's chiliastic expectations" of a universal world order in which all men would live in harmony, equally able to fulfill their highest potential -- the Golden Age that from this period on would begin to lie in mankind's future rather than his past.
96) The year 1604 was fraught with chiliastic significance: "new stars" had appeared in the constellations Serpentarius and Cygnus, mentioned specifically in the Fama, which Kepler had written about in De stella nova in pede Serpentarii (1606); a heavenly portent in the form of a fiery triangle was observed that was thought to appear every 800 years, having heralded Charlemagne and Christ before him; the third age predicted by Joachim of Fiore was expected; and it was the year Studion completed his millenarian prophecy.
Even more significant is his detailed recounting of what Jar Allah says about Dajal (the Muslim Antichrist), without the kind of editorial comment one would expect from someone who sees Islam as a satanic religion, going so far in this case as to use the Muslim as a negative foil for date-setting chiliastic Christians.