Chin

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Chin,

dynasty of China (265–420): see TsinTsin
or Chin
, dynasty of China that ruled from 265 to 420, after the period of the Three Kingdoms. It was divided into two phases: the Western Tsin (265–317) and the Eastern Tsin (317–420).
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Chin

 

a kingdom in ancient China from the 11th to fourth centuries B.C., located in what is now Shansi Province. From 632 to 546, Chin was one of the most powerful of the ancient Chinese kingdoms, and its ruler held the title of hegemon (pa). In the fifth century Chin was weakened by internecine struggles among the noble houses. As a result, it disintegrated into the three domains (subsequently kingdoms) Chao, Wei, and Han. Chin nominally continued to exist, however, until 369 B.C., when these kingdoms formally replaced it.


Chin

 

a state and dynasty of the Jurchens, who inhabited what is now Northeast China; in existence from 1115 to 1234.

The Chin state arose during a struggle between the Jurchens and the Khitans. The Khitan state, to which the Jurchens had been paying tribute, was destroyed in 1125 when Chin captured its territory. From 1125 to 1127, Chin fought the Northern Sung Dynasty, from which it captured a large part of North China, including K’aifeng, the capital of the empire. The Chin troops seized territory as far south as the Yangtze River.

In 1139, Chin signed a peace treaty with the state of the Southern Sung Dynasty, which, in accordance with the treaty, acknowledged its vassalage to Chin. By the mid-12th century, Chin had become a powerful Eastern Asian state, comprising the territory of what is now Northeast and North China and part of Inner Mongolia. In addition to the Southern Sung state, which paid tribute to Chin, Korea and the Tangut state of Hsi Hsia acknowledged their vassalage to Chin.

The Chin state was primarily based on the feudal mode of production, but slaveholding also played an important role. Chin was destroyed by Mongol invaders.

REFERENCE

Istoriia Kitaia s drevneishikh vremen do nashikh dnei. Moscow, 1974.

L. I. DUMAN


Ch’in

 

an imperial dynasty in China from 221 B.C. to 207 B.C. The dynasty was founded by Shih Huang Ti and its capital was Hsienyang.

During the period of Ch’in rule, the first centralized state in Chinese history was established, and the country was subdivided into 36 provinces, governed by officials who were appointed by the emperor. The state ideology was Legism (seeFA-CHIA). Under the Ch’in Dynasty, the tax burden on the people was intensified as a result of continual wars in the northern and southern parts of the country and the construction of the Great Wall and numerous palaces. A series of popular uprisings broke out in late 209 and early 208; the leaders of these uprisings included Ch’en Sheng, Wu Kuang, and Liu Pang. After Liu Pang’s army captured Hsienyang, the Ch’in Dynasty came to an end.

REFERENCE

Perelomov, L. S. Imperiia Tsin’—pervoe tsentralizovannoe gosudarstvo v Kitae. Moscow, 1962.

Ch’in

 

an ancient Chinese kingdom that arose circa the tenth century B.C.; initially dependent on the Chou Dynasty. The territory of Ch’in comprised what is now the western and northwestern part of Shansi Province, the eastern part of Kansu Province, and the northern part of Szechwan Province. During the Chan Kuo period (fifth to third centuries B.C.), Ch’in was one of the seven most powerful states in China; these states were independent of the Chou monarchy. Ch’in was strengthened as a result of the reforms of Shang Yang. Over a period beginning in the mid-fourth century B.C. the kingdom warred with the other Chinese states; by 221 B.C. it had established its supremacy, thus forming the centralized Ch’in Empire.


Chin

 

a national administrative division in Burma, in the mountainous northwestern section of the country. Area, 33,000 sq km. Population, 354,000 (1969). The district is inhabited primarily by people of the Chin nationality. Falam is the principal city. Agriculture and logging are the basis of the economy.

chin

[chin]
(anatomy)
The lower part of the face, at or near the symphysis of the lower jaw.

chin

chin
A part of an aircraft structure that sticks out from the region under the aircraft nose. Examples include chin intake, chin blister, and chin radome. Some military aircraft have chin turrets.

chin

1. the protruding part of the lower jaw
2. the front part of the face below the lips
References in classic literature ?
He is an exceedingly puffy little old gentleman, with big circular eyes and a huge double chin.
A shock of orange hair, a pale face disfigured by a horrible scar, which, by its contraction, has turned up the outer edge of his upper lip, a bulldog chin, and a pair of very penetrating dark eyes, which present a singular contrast to the colour of his hair, all mark him out from amid the common crowd of mendicants and so, too, does his wit, for he is ever ready with a reply to any piece of chaff which may be thrown at him by the passers-by.
Jobling repair to the rag and bottle shop, where they find Krook still sleeping like one o'clock, that is to say, breathing stertorously with his chin upon his breast and quite insensible to any external sounds or even to gentle shaking.
The heavy, white face was seamed with lines of trouble, the hanging pouches under the closed eyes were leaden in colour, the loose mouth drooped dolorously at the corners, the rolling chins were unshaven.
Cousin Caroline was a lady of very imposing height and circumference, but in spite of her size and her handsome trappings, there was something exposed and unsheltered in her expression, as if for many summers her thin red skin and hooked nose and reduplication of chins, so much resembling the profile of a cockatoo, had been bared to the weather; she was, indeed, a single lady; but she had, it was the habit to say, "made a life for herself," and was thus entitled to be heard with respect.
John were engaged in more or less continuous conversation about the future of the country from a political point of view, and the degree to which it had been explored; the others, with their legs stretched out, or chins poised on the hands, gazed in silence.
And it did indeed cause him some difficulty about the fit of his satin stocks, for which chins were at that time useful.
Some had long, curved noses and chins, small eyes and wide, grinning mouths.
The gourds they held to their lips until the beer ran down their chins and the vessels were wrested from them by greedy neighbors.
Some leaned with a single elbow upon the rail, their chins resting in their palms; others leaned upon both arms across the balcony, looking down into the street, while several that he saw held musical instruments in their hands, but their fingers moved not upon the strings.
 Nor hear its own shriek for the noise of their chins.
As for dimples, they appeared in cheeks and chins, wherever they might be most charming, and one or two heads had freckles upon the faces to contrast the better with the brilliancy of their complexions.