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Additionally, all positively identified species were grouped according to pollination mode as trochilophilous, chiropterophilous, entomophilous, mixed/unspecific (two or three of the first three categories), or autogamous (Kessler & Kromer, 2000).
The slight tendency toward larger ranges among chiropterophilous species may be a result of the prevalence of this pollination mode at low elevations, paralleling the pattern discussed for mixed pollination.
This locally abundant species with an inconspicuous green inflorescence is night-blooming and likely pollinated by nectar-feeding bats, similar to other chiropterophilous bromeliads such as the widespread Werauhia gladioliflora.
In the chiropterophilous species studied here the large size stigma of Hymenaea courbaril flower (approximately 1,000 [micro]m, see Table 2) and the large and conspicuous head-like inflorescences of Parkia pendula, with about 1,300 flowers (Hopkins, 1984; Fleming et al.