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Related to chlamydia: syphilis, gonorrhea


(kləmĭd`ēə), genus of microorganisms that cause a variety of diseases in humans and other animals. Psittacosis, or parrot fever, caused by the species Chlamydia psittaci, is transmitted to people by birds, particularly parrots, parakeets, and lovebirds. In birds the disease takes the form of an intestinal infection, but in people it runs the course of a viral pneumonia. Different forms of Chlamydia trachomatis cause trachomatrachoma
, infection of the mucous membrane of the eyelids caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. Trachoma affects at least 86 million people worldwide. An estimated 1.
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, an infection of the mucous membrane of the eyelids, and the sexually transmitted diseasesexually transmitted disease
(STD) or venereal disease,
term for infections acquired mainly through sexual contact. Five diseases were traditionally known as venereal diseases: gonorrhea, syphilis, and the less common granuloma inguinale, lymphogranuloma venereum, and
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 lymphogranuloma venereum. This same species also causes the sexually transmitted disease called chlamydia, the most common such disease in the United States. In women, chlamydia is a common cause of pelvic inflammatory diseasepelvic inflammatory disease
(PID), infection of the female reproductive organs, usually resulting from infection with the bacteria that cause chlamydia or gonorrhea. The infection typically first affects the cervical area, then spreads to the uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries,
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, which can result in infertility and an increased risk of tubal pregnancy. Men are the primary carriers, but painful urination and discharge often prompt men to get treatment before the testes can be infected and male infertility can result. Chlamydial infections can be treated with antibiotics such as tetracycline.


A genus of bacteria with a growth cycle differing from that of all other microorganisms. Chlamydiae grow only in living cells and cannot be cultured on artificial media. Although capable of synthesizing macromolecules, they have no system for generating energy; the host cell's energy system fuels the chlamydial metabolic processes. The genome is relatively small; the genomes of C. pneumoniae and C. trachomatis have been completely sequenced.

The chlamydial infectious particle, called the elementary body, is round and about 350–450 nanometers in diameter. It enters a susceptible host cell and changes to a metabolically active and larger (approximately 800–1000 nm in diameter) reticulate body that divides by binary fission. The entire growth cycle occurs within a vacuole that segregates the chlamydia from the cytoplasm of the host cell. The reticulate bodies change back to elementary bodies, and then the cell lyses and the infectious particles are released. The growth cycle takes about 48 h.

Human diseases are caused by three species of Chlamydia. Chlamydia trachomatis is almost exclusively a human pathogen, and one of the most common. Infections occur in two distinct epidemiologic patterns. In many developing countries, C. trachomatis causes trachoma, a chronic follicular keratoconjunctivitis. It is the world's leading cause of preventable blindness, affecting approximately 500 million people. In areas where this condition is highly endemic, virtually the entire population is infected within the first few years of life. Most active infections are found in childhood. By age 60, more than 20% of a population can be blinded as a result of trachoma. See Eye disorders

Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial pathogen; an estimated 3–4 million cases occur each year in the United States, and there are close to 90 million worldwide. The most common manifestation is nongonococcal urethritis in males. The cervix is the most commonly infected site in women. Ascending infections can occur in either sex, resulting in epididymitis in males or endometritis and salpingitis in females. Chlamydial infection of the fallopian tube can cause late consequences such as infertility and ectopic pregnancy, even though the earlier infection is asymptomatic. The infant passing through the infected birth canal can acquire the infection and may develop either conjunctivitis or pneumonia. A more invasive form of C. trachomatis causes a systemic sexually transmitted disease called lymphogranuloma venereum. See Sexually transmitted diseases

Chlamydia psittaci is virtually ubiquitous among avian species and is a common pathogen among lower mammals. It is economically important in many countries as a cause of abortion in sheep, cattle, and goats. It causes considerable morbidity and mortality in poultry. Chlamydia psittaci can infect humans, causing the disease psittacosis. Psittacosis can occur as pneumonia or a febrile toxic disease without respiratory symptoms.

Chlamydia pneumoniae appears to be a human pathogen with no animal reservoir. It is of worldwide distribution and may be the most common human chlamydial infection. It appears to be an important cause of respiratory disease.

Azithromycin is the drug of choice for uncomplicated chlamydial infection of the genital tract. Two therapeutic agents require longer treatment regimens: doxycycline, a tetracycline antibiotic, is the first alternate treatment; erythromycin may be used for those who are tetracycline-intolerant, as well as for pregnant women or young children. See Medical bacteriology


The single genus of the family Chlamydiaceae.
References in periodicals archive ?
Asthma, arthritis, cerebrovascular disease, carotid atherosclerosis, age-related macular degeneration, and abortion can also be induced by Chlamydia spp.
2) Only 40 percent of sexually active women aged 15 to 21 reported having had a chlamydia test in the past 12 months.
Our finding that insertive CAS [condomless anal sex acts] was associated with rectal GC/CT [gonococcus/ Chlamydia trachomatis] highlights that providers should screen patients for GC/CT via a full range of transmission routes, lest GC/CT go undiagnosed," the investigators concluded (Sex Transm Dis.
Specifically, researchers found that before the guideline change, nearly 62 percent of chlamydia screens were concurrent with a Pap smear.
Of the 46,966 who underwent Pap testing, 89% and 80% were tested for chlamydia and gonorrhea, respectively, and of those who did not undergo Pap testing, only 51% and 48% were tested for chlamy dia and gonorrhea, said Dr.
Half of those diagnosed with gonorrhoea had also previously been infected with chlamydia.
5) Rates of rectal gonorrhea and chlamydia reach as high as 38% (6) and 24% (7) in some studies of gay/bisexual men.
In fact, among females, the highest rates of chlamydia occur in those aged 15 to 24.
Chlamydia is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the UK today.
While chlamydia is tricky to spot, it's easy to deal with.
Chlamydia poses an insidious and ongoing threat to HIV-positive people--insidious because it usually causes no symptoms and so can easily go undetected, ongoing because people with HIV often remain sexually active and so risk picking up or passing along another STI.
Healthcare staff from the North East's chlamydia screening programmes will be offering tests on Sunday and Monday at special toilets at the event.