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Related to chlamydiosis: parrot fever, Avian chlamydiosis


Any form of psittacosis originating in birds other than psittacines.



a disease of birds and man that is caused by viruses of the genus Chlamydia. Ornithoses, which belong to the zooanthroponosis group of diseases, were first described in 1875. The French scientist A. Morange named the disease psittacosis in 1895 (from Greek psittakos, “parrot”).

The causative agent of ornithosis is a virus discharged in the excrement and nasal mucus of birds. Humans may be infected by affected or carrier birds while caring for, slaughtering, or plucking the birds. Eating undercooked infected eggs may also cause infection. The infectious material is introduced into the mouth or the conjunctiva of the eye by contaminated hands. Infected dust may also enter the respiratory tract.

The incubation period of ornithosis is one to two weeks. The disease has an acute onset and proceeds with high temperatures lasting two to four weeks, headaches, muscle pains, and pneumonia (chest pains, dry cough). It is sometimes accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and constipation. These are also mild forms of ornithosis, in which the symptoms pass in a few days. Ornithosis does not result in stable immunity. Persons infected by the disease must be hospitalized. Ornithosis is treated with antibiotics and other medications.

Preventive measures include observing proper maintenance procedures on poultry farms, disinfecting, wearing special clothing when caring for poultry, observing the regulations governing the sale of products, controlling the pigeon population in cities, and prohibiting or restricting the importation of parrots.


Birds susceptible to ornithoses include chickens, ducks, geese, turkeys, pheasants, pigeons, canaries, and parrots. (In American terminology, ornithoses of parrots are called psittacoses.) The natural foci of the diseases are the gathering places of wild birds that live in colonies near water. Mostly young birds are affected.

The sources of the infectious agent are sick and recovered microbe-carrying birds. The infection proceeds through the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. Sick birds suffer from rhinitis and paralysis of the legs and wings; acute diarrhea is often a sympton. Diagnosis is based on epizootic testing, clinical symptoms, and laboratory tests. There is no specific treatment for the disease.

When poultry are affected with ornithosis, restrictions are placed upon the poultry farm. The importation, exportation, and regrouping of the birds are prohibited. Public health measures are taken that are directed toward preventing human infection.


Kazantsev, A. P. Ornitoz. Leningrad, 1973.
References in periodicals archive ?
The recommendations in this compendium provide standardized procedures for managing avian chlamydiosis in the pet bird population, which is an essential step in efforts to reduce psittacosis among humans.
Chlamydiosis in gulls from North Dakota: a reminder to consider diseases transmissable to humans when investigating wildlife mortality.
Avian chlamydiosis is a subclinical, acute, subacute, or chronic disease of wild and domestic birds worldwide and is characterized by respiratory, digestive, or systemic infection.
There are 63 emerging diseases just among marine life, reports the book Conservation Medicine, and these include tuberculosis in fur seals and chlamydiosis in sea turtles.
According to Conservation Medicine, there are at least 63 emerging diseases among marine creatures, such as campylobacteriosis in New Zealand sea lions, tuberculosis in fur seals, chlamydiosis in sea turtles and some marine mammals, and herpes in northern fur seals and other animals.
Other examples of "indivisible" diseases are those caused by biological agents (for example, anthrax, brucellosis, chlamydiosis, legionellosis, leptospirosis, lyme disease, tetanus and tuberculosis) or from lung or other organ damage from work involving breathing gases at increased pressure (for example, decompression illness and barotrauma).
Chlamydiosis, a well known disease of captive birds, has also been found in wild robins, collared doves and dunnocks, and I have not even started on the protozoal infections or those caused by viruses or fungi.
The cause of the painful infection is the Chlamydia psittaci, a minute organism that causes feline chlamydiosis, a highly infectious upper respiratory disease in cats that can be transmitted to humans.
The diseases I worry about most are rabies, chlamydiosis, dermatophytosis, E cuniculi, influenza, Cheyletiella, mycobacteriosis (more often in fish than other animals), Salmonella, Giardia, and West Nile virus.
0141); European Cooperation in Science and Technology Action 855 (Animal Chlamydiosis and Zoonotic Implications); the Institute of Microbiology; and the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
University of Queensland - $655,875, The pathology, incidence, treatment and management of Chlamydiosis in the male koala;