chloramine


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Related to chloramine: chloramphenicol, chloramine T

chloramine:

see hydrazinehydrazine
, chemical compound, formula NH2NH2, m.p. 1.4°C;, b.p. 113.5°C;, specific gravity 1.011 at 15°C;. It is very soluble in water and soluble in alcohol.
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Chloramine

 

any one of a group of chloroderivatives of ammonia (inorganic chloramines) or amines (organic chloramines), whose molecules contain a chlorine atom bonded to nitrogen. (For a discussion of inorganic chloramines, seeNITROGEN CHLORIDE.)

Organic chloramines are liquids or solids, with a pungent odor that irritates the upper respiratory tract. They include the liquids N-chlorodimethylamine, (CH3)2NCl, which boils at 46°C, N,N-dichloromethylamine, CH3NCl2, which boils at 58°–60°C, and N,N-dichloroethylamine, C2H5NCl2, and N-chlorodiethylamine, (C2H5)2NCl, which boils at 91°C. Hexachloromelamine, whose structural formula is

is a yellow crystalline compound with a melting point of 149°C.

Chloramines decompose in the presence of water, including atmospheric moisture, with the formation of an amine and hypochlorous acid, HOCl. Solutions of chloramines in organic solvents are rather stable. Chloramines are produced by the action of chlorine or hypochlorous acid on amines and amine salts.

The term “chloramine” is often used to denote any N-chloro-derivative of the amides of organic and inorganic acids. Chloramides and dichloramides of aromatic sulfonic acids have found great practical use. Chloramine-B, C6H5SO2NNaCl · 3H2O (the sodium salt of the N-chloramide of benzenesulfonic acid), and chloramine-T, (CH3)C6H4SO2NNaCl · 3H2O (the sodium salt of the N-chloramide of p-toluenesulfonic acid), are colorless crystals with a melting point of 180°–185°C and 175°–180°C, respectively; they are readily soluble in water and ethanol. Dichloramine-B (N,N-dichloro-benzenesulfonamide) and dichloramine-T (N,N-dichloro-p-toluenesulfonamide) are crystals with an odor of chlorine and a melting point of 69°–72°C and 80°–83°C, respectively; they are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents, usually dichloroethane.

Chloramines have oxidizing and chlorinating properties and consequently are used in analytical chemistry and in industry, for example, in the textile industry to bleach fabrics; they are also used as decontaminants. In medicine, chloramines, mainly chloramine-B, are used as antiseptics. Chloramine-B, which contains 25–29 percent active chlorine, is also used as a deodorizer and spermatocide. A 0.25–0.5 percent solution of chloramine-B is used to disinfect hands, while a 1–5 percent solution of chloramine-B, chloramine-T, or dichloramine are used to decontaminate utensils and excretions of patients with intestinal and respiratory infections. Chloramines are also used for chlorination of water (Pantocid tablets), treatment of infected wounds, and decontamination of hands and nonmetallic equipment.

References in periodicals archive ?
Lead concentrations from the chlorine-based waters appeared to be decreasing over the study period, while for the chloramines + ammonia + fluosilicic acid combination, lead concentrations seemed to be increasing with time.
Research has also proposed that a cause-effect relationship has been established between the presence of chloramines in the air of the indoor swimming pools and the increased occurrence of asthma, irritant eye, nasal and throat symptoms in swimming instructors and lifeguards (Massin 1998) (Levesque 2006) (Jacobs, et al.
Shower before entering the pool; not only will sweat cause chloramine formation, but so will body lotion, deodorant and hair gel.
have discovered lead contamination in drinking water after they switched to chloramine.
However, smaller molecular weight contaminants in the water system can pass into the patient and some of these are injurious (for example, copper [hemolysis], aluminum [bone disease, encephalopathy], chloramines [hemolysis], and endotoxin [febrile reactions]).
Treatment with chloramine, a chemical more effective and less hazardous than chlorine, is highly effective but too expensive to be used on a large scale.
With a single unit process, catalytic/adsorptive carbon can now more effectively remove chloramine and additionally remove hydrogen sulfide from potable process water while continuing to remove free chlorine and other taste and odor chemicals.
Beginning the week of May 28, New Jersey American Water will be changing its water treatment disinfectant for customers in Monmouth and Ocean Counties from free chlorine to chloramine, which is a mixture of chlorine and ammonia approved by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and the U.
Tenders are invited for Organic Chloramine Sodium Dichloro Iso Cyanurate Chlorine Tablet 20Gm Weight Effervescence.
Moreover, rising consumption of chloramine as a disinfectant is pushing the demand for media based water filters in North American countries, especially in the United States.
Last year, Southbridge began using a secondary disinfectant called chloramine, which adds ammonia to chlorine, to treat its 94 miles of water lines, including for Charlton customers.
In an effort to decrease the concentrations of disinfection byproducts, the district switched from chlorine to chloramine.