chloramphenicol


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chloramphenicol

(klōr'ămfĕn`əkŏl'), antibioticantibiotic,
any of a variety of substances, usually obtained from microorganisms, that inhibit the growth of or destroy certain other microorganisms. Types of Antibiotics
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 effective against a wide range of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria (see Gram's stainGram's stain,
laboratory staining technique that distinguishes between two groups of bacteria by the identification of differences in the structure of their cell walls. The Gram stain, named after its developer, Danish bacteriologist Christian Gram, has become an important tool
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). It was originally isolated from a species of Streptomyces bacteria. Chloramphenicol's antibiotic activity results from its interference with protein synthesis in invading microbes. However, it is a very toxic substance, its most serious and potentially lethal effect being depression of red blood cell production in bone marrowbone marrow,
soft tissue filling the spongy interiors of animal bones. Red marrow is the principal organ that forms blood cells in mammals, including humans (see blood). In children, the bones contain only red marrow.
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; cases of leukemia were also attributed to early use of chloramphenicol. Because of its toxicity, chloramphenicol is rarely prescribed for infections that can be treated by other antibiotics. It is used as an alternative therapy to treat typhoid fever, some forms of meningitis, and rickettsial infections such as Rocky Mountain spotted fever and typhus. Chloramphenicol is commonly used in biological research to study protein synthesis. Chloromycetin is a trade name for chloramphenicol.

chloramphenicol

[‚klȯr‚am′fen·ə‚kȯl]
(microbiology)
C11H12O2N2Cl2 A colorless, crystalline, broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by Streptomyces venezuelae; industrial production is by chemical synthesis. Also known as chloromycetin.
References in periodicals archive ?
While awaiting results, a broad-spectrum antibiotic should be prescribed (either initiate chloramphenicol eye drops where appropriate or select another antibiotic listed above if chloramphenicol treatment was ineffective).
Chloramphenicol resistance varied widely between human and animal isolates (yearly range 0%-46.
Louis, MO), cefoperazone (sodium salt), ciprofloxacin, piperacillin (sodium salt), gentamicin (sulfate salt) obtained from Sigma, tetracycline (hydrochloride) from USB and chloramphenicol from Fluka were used.
Two assays were performed to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of the antibiotics: chloramphenicol (experiment 1) and a mixture of penicillin G sodium/dihydrostreptomycin (experiment 2), on bacterial counts in biofilms associated with Haliotis rufescens culture and on the growth of postlarvae.
Due to changes in trends in international trade and the problem of occurrence of banned antibiotics in aquaculture products, the laboratories were strengthened with more sophisticated equipment including a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometer for the analysis of banned antibiotics, Chloramphenicol and Nitrofurans; an ICP OES for the analysis of chemical elements; and a gas chromatograph for the analysis of organic-chlorine pesticides.
Pharmacists can now sell antibiotic chloramphenicol eye drops to people aged two or over for treatment of active bacterial conjunctivitis.
The recent reclassification by the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) of the first antibiotic, eye drop chloramphenicol, from prescription-only to pharmacy medicine status is a significant and important milestone for pharmacy and the improvement of access to medicines for patients.
faecium resistant to vancomycin, ampicillin-sulbactam, and ciprofloxacin; borderline susceptible to doxycycline; and susceptible to chloramphenicol by disk diffusion testing.
Chloramphenicol, another antibiotic found in the farm dust, can damage DNA in people.
The European Union has banned the import of Chinese fisheries products since residues of the antibiotic chloramphenicol were found in prawns imported from China in January.
pulled Chinese shrimp and crawfish from its shelves in three states in May and June after tests of 10 samples from various Louisiana stores found all 10 contained chloramphenicol, an antibiotic that was banned in the United States a decade ago.