chloramphenicol


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chloramphenicol

(klōr'ămfĕn`əkŏl'), antibioticantibiotic,
any of a variety of substances, usually obtained from microorganisms, that inhibit the growth of or destroy certain other microorganisms. Types of Antibiotics
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 effective against a wide range of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria (see Gram's stainGram's stain,
laboratory staining technique that distinguishes between two groups of bacteria by the identification of differences in the structure of their cell walls. The Gram stain, named after its developer, Danish bacteriologist Christian Gram, has become an important tool
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). It was originally isolated from a species of Streptomyces bacteria. Chloramphenicol's antibiotic activity results from its interference with protein synthesis in invading microbes. However, it is a very toxic substance, its most serious and potentially lethal effect being depression of red blood cell production in bone marrowbone marrow,
soft tissue filling the spongy interiors of animal bones. Red marrow is the principal organ that forms blood cells in mammals, including humans (see blood). In children, the bones contain only red marrow.
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; cases of leukemia were also attributed to early use of chloramphenicol. Because of its toxicity, chloramphenicol is rarely prescribed for infections that can be treated by other antibiotics. It is used as an alternative therapy to treat typhoid fever, some forms of meningitis, and rickettsial infections such as Rocky Mountain spotted fever and typhus. Chloramphenicol is commonly used in biological research to study protein synthesis. Chloromycetin is a trade name for chloramphenicol.

chloramphenicol

[‚klȯr‚am′fen·ə‚kȯl]
(microbiology)
C11H12O2N2Cl2 A colorless, crystalline, broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by Streptomyces venezuelae; industrial production is by chemical synthesis. Also known as chloromycetin.
References in periodicals archive ?
The in vitro sensitivity pattern of uterine bacterial and fungal pathogens to different antibiotics showed maximum susceptibility of uterine bacterial pathogens to Gentamicin, Ceftriaxone and Cefuroxime (100% effective in all bacterial isolates), followed by Tetracycline and Chloramphenicol (92.
The present study was undertaken to know the antibiotic susceptibility of salmonella serotypes to the more commonly used agents like ampicillin chloramphenicol co-trimoxazole ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone.
While awaiting results, a broad-spectrum antibiotic should be prescribed (either initiate chloramphenicol eye drops where appropriate or select another antibiotic listed above if chloramphenicol treatment was ineffective).
Chloramphenicol resistance varied widely between human and animal isolates (yearly range 0%-46.
Chloramphenicol, piperacillin-tazobactam, ertapenem and amoxicillin-clavulanate demonstrated the highest activity against these isolates, while 11% and 18% demonstrated resistance to metronidazole and clindamycin, respectively.
However, due to development of resistant to Chloramphenicol its use has declined significantly, particularly in developed countries where third generation Cephalosporins or Ciprofloxacin are used preferably.