chloropicrin


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Acronyms, Wikipedia.

chloropicrin

(klōr'əpĭk`rĭn), colorless oily liquid used as a poison gaspoison gas,
any of various gases sometimes used in warfare or riot control because of their poisonous or corrosive nature. These gases may be roughly grouped according to the portal of entry into the body and their physiological effects.
..... Click the link for more information.
. It is a powerful irritant, causing lachrymation, vomiting, bronchitis, and pulmonary edema; lung injury from chloropicrin may result in death. Trace amounts in the air cause a burning sensation in the eyes, which serves as a warning of exposure. Chloropicrin is more toxic than chlorine but less toxic than phosgenephosgene
, colorless poison gas, first used during World War I by the Germans (1915). When dispersed in air, the gas has the odor of new-mowed hay. The gas is highly toxic; when inhaled it reacts with water in the lungs to form hydrochloric acid and carbon monoxide.
..... Click the link for more information.
. It is relatively inert and does not react with the chemicals commonly used in gas masks. It has been extensively used as a vomiting gas by the military. It is also used industrially in small amounts as a warning agent in commercial fumigants and as an insecticide and disinfectant for grain. Chloropicrin has the formula CCl3NO2. It boils at 112°C; with partial decomposition to phosgene and nitrosyl chloride.

Chloropicrin

 

(also trichloronitromethane), CCl3NO2, a colorless, oily liquid, with a pungent odor. Chloropicrin has a melting point of –64°C, a boiling point of 112.3°C, and a density of 1.6539 g/cm3 (at 20°C). A strong lacrimator, it is practically insoluble in water but is readily soluble in organic solvents. It is not hydrolyzed by water and alkaline aqueous solutions and may be steam-distilled. Alkaline alcohol solutions and aqueous alcohol solutions of Na2S rapidly and quantitatively decompose chloropicrin, which at 400°C decomposes into phosgene and ClNO. Chloropicrin is produced by the chlorination of picric acid and its salts.

The minimal active concentration of chloropicrin is 0.002 mg/liter, and the intolerable concentration, 0.05 mg/liter (for 2 min); in large concentrations, it has an asphyxiating effect. Chloropicrin was used as a poison gas during World War I (1914–18). Presently it is used for checking gas masks and as a war gas for military training.

R. N. STERLIN

chloropicrin

[‚klȯr·ō′pik·rən]
(inorganic chemistry)
CCl3NO2 A colorless liquid with a sweet odor whose vapor is very irritating to the lungs and causes vomiting, coughing, and crying; used as a soil fumigant. Also known as nitrochloroform; trichloronitromethane.
References in periodicals archive ?
TIF also increased residual chloropicrin in soil, but the concentration was generally an order of magnitude lower than that of 1,3-D.
Methyl bromide with chloropicrin (98:2) was applied at 350 pounds per acre with a Noble plow rig set up to inject fumigants 10 inches deep through emitters spaced 12 inches apart while simultaneously installing 1-mil high-density polyethylene (HDPE) film.
Higher concentrations of 1,3-D and chloropicrin were measured under VIF than under standard film 1 to 4 days after drip fumigation (Desaeger and Csinos 2005).
Recent studies demonstrate that totally impermeable film (TIF) can significantly reduce peak and total emissions of chloropicrin and 1,3-D when tarping periods are extended from 5 days to 10 days.
In the southeastern United States, where lighter sandy soils prevail, 300 pounds per acre chloropicrin was comparable to methyl bromide with chloropicrin (MB:Pic) over three pine seedling crop rotations, provided an effective herbicide regime was used to control weeds (Cram et al.
The major alternatives to methyl bromide, 1,3-D and chloropicrin, are heavily regulated.
Field trials involving spraying KTS on the soil surface following fumigation revealed that this chemical can significantly reduce emissions of 1,3-D (by about 50%) and chloropicrin (by 85%) (Gao, Qin, et al.
Liquid fumigants, such as methyl bromide, chloropicrin, metam sodium, and others (including rest of the fumigants in that particular form), are used mostly in many regions due to its safe application and usage for bulk grains and agricultural commodities.
Supply of 25 tons bromide methyl gas 98 % / 2 % chloropicrin bottled in 50 or 100 Kg cylinders.
Spokas K, Wang D, Venterea R (2005) Greenhouse gas production and emission from a forest nursery soil following fumigation with chloropicrin and methyl isothiocyanate.
Herbicide dose and incorporation depth in combination with 1,3-dichloropropene plus chloropicrin for Cyperus rotundus control in tomato and pepper.