chloropicrin


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chloropicrin

(klōr'əpĭk`rĭn), colorless oily liquid used as a poison gaspoison gas,
any of various gases sometimes used in warfare or riot control because of their poisonous or corrosive nature. These gases may be roughly grouped according to the portal of entry into the body and their physiological effects.
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. It is a powerful irritant, causing lachrymation, vomiting, bronchitis, and pulmonary edema; lung injury from chloropicrin may result in death. Trace amounts in the air cause a burning sensation in the eyes, which serves as a warning of exposure. Chloropicrin is more toxic than chlorine but less toxic than phosgenephosgene
, colorless poison gas, first used during World War I by the Germans (1915). When dispersed in air, the gas has the odor of new-mowed hay. The gas is highly toxic; when inhaled it reacts with water in the lungs to form hydrochloric acid and carbon monoxide.
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. It is relatively inert and does not react with the chemicals commonly used in gas masks. It has been extensively used as a vomiting gas by the military. It is also used industrially in small amounts as a warning agent in commercial fumigants and as an insecticide and disinfectant for grain. Chloropicrin has the formula CCl3NO2. It boils at 112°C; with partial decomposition to phosgene and nitrosyl chloride.

Chloropicrin

 

(also trichloronitromethane), CCl3NO2, a colorless, oily liquid, with a pungent odor. Chloropicrin has a melting point of –64°C, a boiling point of 112.3°C, and a density of 1.6539 g/cm3 (at 20°C). A strong lacrimator, it is practically insoluble in water but is readily soluble in organic solvents. It is not hydrolyzed by water and alkaline aqueous solutions and may be steam-distilled. Alkaline alcohol solutions and aqueous alcohol solutions of Na2S rapidly and quantitatively decompose chloropicrin, which at 400°C decomposes into phosgene and ClNO. Chloropicrin is produced by the chlorination of picric acid and its salts.

The minimal active concentration of chloropicrin is 0.002 mg/liter, and the intolerable concentration, 0.05 mg/liter (for 2 min); in large concentrations, it has an asphyxiating effect. Chloropicrin was used as a poison gas during World War I (1914–18). Presently it is used for checking gas masks and as a war gas for military training.

R. N. STERLIN

chloropicrin

[‚klȯr·ō′pik·rən]
(inorganic chemistry)
CCl3NO2 A colorless liquid with a sweet odor whose vapor is very irritating to the lungs and causes vomiting, coughing, and crying; used as a soil fumigant. Also known as nitrochloroform; trichloronitromethane.
References in periodicals archive ?
Chloropicrin is an effective soil disease control agent when used alone at 100 to 300 pounds per acre.
The major alternatives to methyl bromide, 1,3-D and chloropicrin, are heavily regulated.
Field trials involving spraying KTS on the soil surface following fumigation revealed that this chemical can significantly reduce emissions of 1,3-D (by about 50%) and chloropicrin (by 85%) (Gao, Qin, et al.
Emissions of chloropicrin were lower than 1,3-D emissions (data not shown) because of the lower amount of chloropicrin applied and its faster degradation; following an application of Telone C35, it's 1,3-D that is the major concern for worker safety in an emissions surge.
Massicotte HB, Tackaberry LE, Ingham ER, Thies WG (1998) Ectomycorrhizae establishment on Douglas-fir seedlings following chloropicrin treatment to control laminated-root rot disease: assessment 4 and 5 years after outplanting.
Most utilities felt that MITC-Fume, metham sodium, and chloropicrin provided good-to-excellent performance, and a high percentage of these respondents felt that MITC-Fume and chloropicrin provided excellent protection.
Preplant soil fumigation with 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) or mixtures of 1,3-D with chloropicrin (Pic) is widely practiced in the process of replacing almond and stone fruit orchards.
However, effects of other pesticides, especially chloropicrin, which is often combined with methyl bromide, could not be ruled out.
The researchers combined each treatment with chloropicrin, a pesticide that kills fungi and is often used in combination with methyl bromide.
Maestro, Elevate, Orthene, Monitor, Decree), 2003; Arvesta Corporation (Captan, Elevate, Everest, Chloropicrin, Midas, corporate), 2000 (both Scott Kington)
There are only four TICs that fall in this category--phosgene, chloropicrin, hydrogen cyanide, and cyanogen chloride--and these are listed in the CWC's Schedule III list.
Distribution of chloropicrin in Douglas-fir poles 1 to 7 years after remedial treatment.