In this study, detached leaf assays were conducted to estimate the influence of leaf position (leaf age) on the development of chocolate spot disease, caused by Botrytis fabae, in the lower, middle and upper leaves of five faba bean (FB) cultivars with different levels of resistance/susceptibility.
A comparison of the defense-response behavior of the FB leaves revealed that the chocolate spot pathogen induced lipid peroxidation and the production of reactive oxygen species, peroxidase, and polyphenol oxidase in leaf tissue during the FB-B.
Many previous studies reported that the resistance to chocolate spot disease is affected by the development of FB plant.
The objective of this study was to investigate the defense-associated compounds involved in age related resistance and to optimize screening tec hniques for chocolate spot pathogen-resistant FB cultivars, by studying the effect of leaf position determining foliage age with regards to its effect on (1) disease development in five FB cultivars exhibiting different levels of resistance to the chocolate spot pathogen, and (2) the production of and variation in, an oxidative burst and phenol-oxidizing enzymes in FB leaves upon infection with the pathogen.
fabae isolate recovered from a diseased FB plant exhibiting symptoms of chocolate spot disease was used in the pathogenicity tests carried out in this study.
Detached leaf assays were conducted to estimate the effect of leaf position (leaf age) on the development of chocolate spot disease in five FB cultivars: Giza Blanka, Giza 461, Sakha 2, Giza 2 and Giza 429.
These flavors, available for a limited time, include Chocolate Dalmatian Sensation, featuring chocolate and vanilla ice cream, a fudge swirl, and candy Dalmatian puppies; and Spotacular Vanilla, a special Grand Light edition, serving up chocolate spots
swirled through a fudge-striped vanilla ice cream.
CHOCOLATE SPOTS PAVLOVA 4 egg whites 225g caster sugar 1tbsp of cornflour 2 tsp of white vinegar 1tbsp of vanilla extract 50g chocolate drops For the topping: 200ml double cream 1 tsp vanilla extract 200g strawberries 1 Beat the egg whites in a clean, grease-free bowl until they make stiff peaks.