choline


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Related to choline: choline bitartrate, Choline chloride, choline salicylate

choline:

see vitaminvitamin,
group of organic substances that are required in the diet of humans and animals for normal growth, maintenance of life, and normal reproduction. Vitamins act as catalysts; very often either the vitamins themselves are coenzymes, or they form integral parts of coenzymes.
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Choline

A compound, trimethyl-β-hydroxyethylammonium hydroxide, used by the animal organism as a precursor of acetylcholine and as a source of methyl groups. It is a strongly basic hygroscopic substance with the formula

Choline deficiency in animals is associated with fatty livers, poor growth, and renal lesions. It is a lipotropic agent. There is no direct evidence of disease in humans due to choline deficiency, although there have been suggestions that some of the liver, kidney, or pancreas pathology seen in various nutritional deficiency states may be related to choline insufficiency. Choline is found in acetylcholine, which is necessary for nerve impulse propagation, and in phospholipids.

Humans eat 50–600 mg of choline per day, but only excrete 2–4 mg. Thus, conventional tests are of no value in studying choline requirements, and no knowledge of human choline requirements exists. See Acetylcholine

Choline

 

(also 2-hydroxyethyltrimethylammonium hydroxide), [(CH3)3N+CH2CH2OH]OH; occurs as colorless crystals. Choline is readily soluble in water and ethyl alcohol but is insoluble in ether and benzene. It easily forms salts with strong acids, and in aqueous solution it possesses the properties of a strong base.

Choline was first obtained from bile. Widespread in living organisms, it is particularly abundant in egg yolk and in the brain, liver, kidneys, and heart muscles of animals. It is usually regarded as a vitamin of the B complex, although animals and microorganisms are able to synthesize it. Choline is a constituent of phospholipids, such as lecithin and sphingomyelin, and it functions as a donor of methyl groups in the synthesis of methionine. From choline, animals can synthesize acetylcholine, which is one of the most important transmitters of nerve impulses. Choline is a lipotropic agent—that is, it prevents serious liver disorders that may arise as a result of excess accumulations of fat in the liver.

Choline chloride is used in medicine for the treatment of liver diseases and is included in some animal feeds. It is used for analytical purposes because of its ability to form poorly soluble salts with phosphotungstic acid, chloroplatinic acid, and certain other heteropoly acids.

V. A. IAKOVLEV

choline

[′kō‚lēn]
(biochemistry)
C5H15O2N A basic hygroscopic substance constituting a vitamin of the B complex; used by most animals as a precursor of acetylcholine and a source of methyl groups.
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Layman explains that choline supports the nervous system that sends signals to exercising muscles.
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2009) showed that the optimal choline requirement level ranges from 500 to 1,000 mg/kg diet when choline chloride was used as choline source.
The Institute of Medicine declared the Adequate Intake recommendation for choline to be 550 mg/day for men and 425 mg/day for women.
The researchers observed several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with choline deficiency-related organ dysfunction in women when they consume a diet low in choline, as well as variants that affect choline requirements.
In the second experiment, the researchers measured changes in attention that occurred in adult rats fed a choline supplement for 12 weeks, versus those with no choline intake.
Since biochemical and therapeutic plausibility exists for use of either PA/pantethine or choline singly, the potential exists for their combined effect to be greater than the sum of its parts.
Tests of the volunteers' blood and liver function indicated that no severe choline or folate deficiencies occurred during the study.
Choline is claiming a share of the spotlight as a crucial nutrient for normal adult functioning as well as fetal development.
Choline is an indicator of phospholipase D activity, which also generates potent platelet activators such as phosphatidic acid and lysophosphatidic acid.
These substances include phospholipids involved in cell-membrane functions, choline compounds thought to invigorate memory-related brain chemicals, and vitamins E and C, which may neutralize brain damage that occurs as people age.