chorionic villus sampling


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Related to chorionic villus sampling: amniocentesis, nuchal translucency, percutaneous umbilical blood sampling

chorionic villus sampling

(CVS) or

chorionic villus biopsy

(CVB) (kōr'ē-ŏn`ĭk, kôr'–), diagnostic procedure in which a sample of chorionic villi from the developing placenta is removed from the uterus of a pregnant woman (see pregnancypregnancy,
period of time between fertilization of the ovum (conception) and birth, during which mammals carry their developing young in the uterus (see embryo). The average duration of pregnancy in humans is about 280 days, equal to 9 calendar months.
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) using a fine needle inserted through the abdomen or a thin plastic catheter inserted into the vagina and through the cervix. Chorionic villi are fingerlike projections of a membrane (the chorion) that surrounds the fetus. The villi develop from the fertilized ovumovum
, in biology, specialized plant or animal sex cell, also called the egg, or egg cell. It is the female sex cell, or female gamete; the male gamete is the sperm. The study of the ovum is included in the science of embryology.
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, or egg, and have a genetic composition similar to that of the fetus. Cells in the sample are grown in the laboratory and studied to detect the presence in the fetus of such genetic birth defectsbirth defects,
abnormalities in physical or mental structure or function that are present at birth. They range from minor to seriously deforming or life-threatening. A major defect of some type occurs in approximately 3% of all births.
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 as Tay-Sachs diseaseTay-Sachs disease
, rare hereditary disease caused by a genetic mutation that leaves the body unable to produce an enzyme necessary for fat metabolism in nerve cells, producing central nervous system degeneration.
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 and Down syndromeDown syndrome,
congenital disorder characterized by mild to severe mental retardation, slow physical development, and characteristic physical features. Down syndrome affects about 1 in every 730 live births and occurs in all populations equally.
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. The sex of the child can also be ascertained. Although CVS tests for the same range of abnormalities as amniocentesisamniocentesis
, diagnostic procedure in which a sample of the amniotic fluid surrounding a fetus is removed from the uterus by means of a fine needle inserted through the abdomen of the pregnant woman (see pregnancy).
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, it is usually performed some weeks earlier (between the 8th and 12th weeks of pregnancy), and the results are available in a few days. It is recommended if the parents are carriers of certain genetic diseases, if there is a family history of genetic disorders, or if the woman is over age 35 (later pregnancies carrying with them a higher risk of chromosomal abnormality).

chorionic villus sampling

[¦kör·ē‚an·ik ′vil·əs ‚sam·pliŋ]
(medicine)
A technique in which samples of chorionic villi are taken from the placenta for the purpose of genetic testing; usually performed at the end of the second month of pregnancy.
References in periodicals archive ?
Summary of findings of chorionic villus sampling Chorionic villus sampling Total Outcome screened of screening N=428 Unsampled Sampled Positive 59 35 24 Negative 356 347 9 Chorionic villus Outcome sampling Karyotype Outcome Total of screening Normal Abnormal abnormal * Positive 18 6 13 Negative 8 1 1 Outcome Outcome of screening TOP IUFD Alive Positive 12 6 41 Negative 1 6 346 ([dagger]) * Total abnormal = total number of chromosomally and phenotypically abnormal babies born.
The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development has awarded us a grant to develop the Chorionic Villus Sampling Birth Defects Registry.
DNA samples for prenatal testing can be obtained by amniocentesis, chorionic villus sampling, or even by the analysis of rare fetal cells circulating in the mother's bloodstream.
If the results are a cause for concern, then further tests such as amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling (CVS) may be recommended.
Maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein screening for neural tube defects came on the scene in the 1970s, and Down syndrome screening and chorionic villus sampling (CVS) followed in the 1980s.
The increased risk of miscarriage with the diagnostic tests amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling - an estimated one in 100 - means that some lives are inevitably lost or that women refuse to have it, then go through pregnancy not knowing if their child will be born with Down's syndrome.
The MLPA test results obtained in 2009 were compared with the results of amniocentesis, chorionic villus sampling and pregnancy outcome.
A robust noninvasive approach would augment or potentially supplant amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling, which, although gold standards, carry a risk of fetal loss.
Many pregnant women, especially those over age 35, rely on chorionic villus sampling (CVS) early in pregnancy to tell them if they are carrying a fetus with a genetic abnormality such as Down's syndrome.
The Signature Precision Panel | Prenatal diagnostic test is available to clinicians through PerkinElmer's Signature Genomics Laboratories to analyze placental tissue or amniotic fluid, extracted during a pregnant woman's chorionic villus sampling (CVS) or amniocentesis procedures, to determine whether an abnormal number of chromosomes (aneuploidies) or small losses of chromosomes (microdeletions) are present during pregnancy.
The market for non-invasive prenatal testing is evolving rapidly due the advantages it offers over the conventional prenatal screening and diagnostic methods such as maternal serum screening, nuchal translucency (NT) scan, amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling (CVS).
For invasive testing, one chorionic villus sampling covers both monochorionic twins (because there's only one placenta to sample), but amniocentesis typically is performed on each amniotic sac.