chromatid


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Related to chromatid: chromomere

chromatid

(krō`mətəd): see chromosomechromosome
, structural carrier of hereditary characteristics, found in the nucleus of every cell and so named for its readiness to absorb dyes. The term chromosome
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; crossing overcrossing over,
process in genetics by which the two chromosomes of a homologous pair exchange equal segments with each other. Crossing over occurs in the first division of meiosis. At that stage each chromosome has replicated into two strands called sister chromatids.
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.

Chromatid

 

one of the components of a chromosome, formed in the nucleus during the interphase of the cell nucleus as a result of the chromosome’s duplication. In mitosis, each chromosome consists of two chromatids; after separating into the daughter nuclei, each chromatid becomes an independent chromosome. In meiosis, homologous chromosomes come together in pairs to make up a four-chromatid structure, or tetrad.

According to the single-chain chromosome model, each chromatid contains in cross section a single tightly coiled and condensed double-strand molecule of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). In the multichain chromosome model, it is assumed that each chromatid contains in cross section several DNA molecules, in which case various types of chromatids are distinguished, such as semichromatids and quarter-chromatids. Most experiments have confirmed the single-chain model.

I. I. KIKNADZE

chromatid

[′krō·mə·təd]
(cell and molecular biology)
One of the pair of strands formed by longitudinal splitting of a chromosome which are joined by a single centromere in somatic cells during mitosis.
One of a tetrad of strands formed by longitudinal splitting of paired chromosomes during diplotene of meiosis.
References in periodicals archive ?
01 ppm) caused chromatid gaps, centromeric gaps, attenuation, chromatid breaks, extra fragments, and stubbed arm in kidney cells [25]; while exposure of the same species to fenvalerate caused chromatid separation, chromatid break, deletion, fragments, gaps, and ring type chromosomes [46].
With either type of chromatid segregation, all combinations of
Protective effect of (-)-epigallocatechingallate and (+) catechin on nitrogen oxide-induced sister chromatid exchange.
Even though when compared to negative control, 1mg/ml treated cells showed an increased frequency of chromatid aberrations.
Increased formation of sister chromatid exchanges, but not of micronuclei, in anaesthetists exposed to low levels of sevoflurane.
443 Wilcon Signed Ranks Test; SCE: sister chromatid exchange; * Value resembles all groups
Maddock, "In vitro induction of sister chromatid exchanges and chromosomal aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes of the oyster toadfish and American eel," Environmental Mutagenesis, vol.
Evaluation of chromosome aberrations, sister chromatid exchange and micronuclei in patients with type-1 diabetes mellitus.
Sister chromatid exchange and chromosome aberrations induced by curcumine and tartrazine on mammalian cells in vivo.
Acetaldehyde is carcinogenic in rodents and causes sister chromatid exchanges and chromosomal aberrations in human cells.
NIPBL, encoding a homolog of fungal Scc2-type sister chromatid cohesion proteins and fly Nipped-B, is mutated in Cornelia de Lange syndrome.
Panel A shows the outcomes of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) involving a ring chromosome.