exposure

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exposure

1. Archit the position or outlook of a house, building, etc.; aspect
2. Mountaineering the degree to which a climb, etc. is exposed (see exposed (sense 4))
3. Photog
a. the act of exposing a photographic film or plate to light, X-rays, etc.
b. an area on a film or plate that has been exposed to light, etc.
c. (as modifier): exposure control
4. Photog
a. the intensity of light falling on a photographic film or plate multiplied by the time for which it is exposed
b. a combination of lens aperture and shutter speed used in taking a photograph

Exposure

The area on any roofing material that is left exposed to the elements.

Exposure

 

in photography, the quantity of illumination H (a photometric quantity), which serves as an evaluation of the surface density of the luminous energy Q. It determines the effect of optical radiation on the photographic material used.

In the general case, H = dQIdA = ∫Edt, where A is the illuminated area, E is the illuminance, and I is the duration of irradiation (exposure time). If E is a constant, then H = Et. In the SI system (seeINTERNATIONAL SYSTEM OF UNITS), exposure is expressed in lux-seconds (lx-s). Beyond the limits of the visible portion of the radiation spectrum, the quantity used is the energy exposure, which is the product of the irradiance and the duration of irradiation; it is expressed in joules per m2 (J/m2).

It is convenient to use the concept of exposure if the effect of radiation is cumulative over time (in photography as well as, for example, in photobiology). The concept is widely used in work with nonoptical and even corpuscular radiation, such as X rays and gamma rays (where the exposure is defined as the product of the surface density of the radiation flux and the duration (), as well as streams of electrons and other particles (where the exposure is equal to the product of the radiation dose rate and t). (See alsoSENSITOMETRY and CHARACTERISTIC CURVE.)

A. L. KARTUZHANSKH

exposure

[ik′spō·zhər]
(building construction)
The distance from the butt of one shingle to the butt of the shingle above it, or the amount of a shingle that is seen.
(graphic arts)
The act of permitting light to fall upon a photosensitive material.
(medicine)
The state of being open to some action or influence that may affect detrimentally, as cold, disease, or wetness.
(meteorology)
The general surroundings of a site, with special reference to its openness to winds and sunshine.
(nucleonics)
The total quantity of radiation at a given point, measured in air.
The cumulative amount of radiation exposure to which nuclear fuel has been subjected in a nuclear reactor; usually expressed in terms of the thermal energy produced by the reactor per ton of fuel initially present, as megawatt days per ton.

shake

A thick wood shingle, usually formed either by hand-splitting a short log into tapered radial sections or by sawing; usually attached in overlapping rows on wood sheathing, 1 as a covering for a roof or wall.

exposure

i. The total quantity of light received per unit area on a sensitized plate or film. It may be expressed as the product of the light intensity and the exposure time.
ii. The act of exposing a light-sensitive material to a light source.
iii. One individual picture of a strip of photographs, usually called a frame.

exposure

(1) The degree to which information can be accessed using authorized or unauthorized methods. See penetration test and risk analysis.

(2) In a camera, the amount of light that reaches the film (analog) or CCD or CMOS sensor (digital). The exposure is achieved by the sum of the shutter speed, aperture (f-stop) and ISO setting. See shutter speed, f-stop and ISO speed.
References in periodicals archive ?
Grier et al (16) provide a comprehensive review on relationship between chronic exposure to mercurials (environmental, pharmaceutical) and autism spectrum disorders.
While the WHO has yet to finalise what levels of chronic exposure cause problems, though the threshold for cardiovascular problems, for example, is chronic night-time exposure of 50 decibels (dB) or above and a daytime exposure above 60dB.
Mice that lack this molecule don't produce as much inflammation after exposure to pollution as do normal mice, suggesting that TLR4 has a prominent role in the body's response to chronic exposure to particulate matter.
Although most of the chemicals the CDC tested for existed in concentrations below those believed to be debilitating, the report emphasized the dearth of knowledge about chronic exposure to toxins.
For starters, chronic exposure to harmful ultraviolet (UV) rays--an invisible form of radiation that penetrates and alters the structure of skin cells--can cause irreversible, even deadly damage.
The results from this study, which indicate noise exposure is related to impairments in mathematics, compel researchers to consider that a wider range of performance outcomes are affected by chronic exposure toaircraft noise,' they write.
Little attention has been given to subtle effects arising from chronic exposure to mixtures of low-level pollutants.
Chronic exposure to benzene in the workplace and to high doses of irradiation can help trigger onset of the disease, but these exposures do not explain most cases.
However, chronic exposure over long periods of time could result in the loss of species well beyond the dozen lichen deserts now identified in North America.
It occurs when chronic exposure to acid from the stomach causes the cells lining the esophagus to break down and undergo genetic changes that can set the stage for cancer.
5 billion people worldwide are exposed to aflatoxin at unsafe levels, and chronic exposure has been linked to liver damage and related cancers; but its role in the spread of infectious disease could make it even more deadly.
Microcystins are toxins found in water supplies throughout the world and it has been suggested that chronic exposure to low levels may be associated with liver cancer.

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