The anterior cingulated
cortex (ACC) has been linked to monitoring task performance and the modulation of arousal during cognitively demanding tasks.
evaluative functions of the anterior cingulated
In contrast, semantic criterion seems to be more closely associated with areas of the right brain hemisphere, particularly the ventromedial frontal area and the cingulated
gyrus (Thompson-Schill, Farah, Desposito, & Aguirre, 1997).
They suggested that older adults' greater difficulty in identifying negative facial expressions of anger might be primarily related to their decline in the orbitofrontal cortex; their difficulty in identifying sadness might be related to their decline in the cingulated
cortex and amygdala; finally, their difficulty in identifying fear might be driven by their decline in the amygdala.
These studies suggest that the limbic system, including the amygdale, hippocampus, and some of the anterior cingulated
cortex may be involved with both emotional states and depression (Gotlieb & Hamilton, 2008; Ochsner & Gross, 2008).
Interrelations between orbital gyrus, insula, temporal tip and anterior cingulated
Both feature cortical inhibition as revealed by slowed EEG theta waves and both show higher levels of activity in areas where theta is prominent, such as the frontal cortex and especially the anterior cingulated
The other regions activated were related to emotion and reward and included areas deep in the brain called the insula and the cingulated
Four of these circuits have generated particular interest: (1) the reward circuit, which is located in the nucleus accumbens; (2) the motivational and drive circuit, which is located in the orbitofrontal cortex; (3) the memory and learning circuit, which is located in the amygdala and the hippocampus; and (4) the control circuit, which is located in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the anterior cingulated
gyrus (Iancu et al.
In the study, higher food addiction scores corresponded to greater activation in the anterior cingulated
cortex, medial orbitofrontal cortex, and amygdala in response to anticipated food.
Furthermore, Buckholtz's study found that regions of the brain associated with strong emotions--amygdala, PFC and posterior cingulated
cortex--play a significant role in determining how severely to punish a norm violator.
Apparently, the dorsal anterior cingulated
cortex controls our perseverance threshold, instinctively telling us when to abandon an activity or plan.