cinnabar

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cinnabar

(sĭn`əbär), mineral, the sulfide of mercury, HgS. Deep red in color, it is used as a pigment (see vermilionvermilion,
vivid red pigment of durable quality. It is a chemical compound of mercury and sulfur and is known as red sulfide of mercury; it was formerly obtained by grinding pure cinnabar but is now commonly prepared synthetically.
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), but principally it is a source of the metal mercury. It is mined in Spain, Italy, and in the United States in California. The mercury is obtained from it by roasting, the sulfur combining with oxygen and passing off as sulfur dioxide.

Cinnabar

 

a mineral of the sulfide group. Chemical composition, HgS; contains 86.2 percent Hg. Cinnabar crystallizes in the trigonal system, forming rhombohedral crystals and fine granular or powdery masses. Red in color, it sometimes exhibits bluish-gray iridescence. Cinnabar is transparent in thin pieces and has a bright adamantine luster. It has a hardness of 2–2.5 on the mineralogical scale and a density of 8,090–8,200 kg/m3. Cinnabar is the most abundant mineral of mercury and is formed in hydrothermal deposits near the surface together with quartz, calcite, barite, antimonite, pyrite, and marcasite, less often with realgar and native gold.

Cinnabar deposits in the USSR are located in the Ukraine (Nikitovka), in Kirghizia (Khaidarken, Chauvai), in the Altai Mountains (Aktash, Chagan-Uzun), and elsewhere. Abroad it is found in Spain (Almadén), Yugoslavia (Alvala), Italy (Idria), and the USA (New Almaden, Calif.). Natural cinnabar serves as a primary raw material in the production of mercury; it is also used in the manufacture of paints, chiefly pigments (watercolors and oils). The ancient Egyptians were the first to use cinnabar in artwork.

G. P. BARSANOV

cinnabar

[′sin·ə‚bär]
(mineralogy)
HgS A vermilion-red mineral that crystallizes in the hexagonal system, although crystals are rare, and commonly occurs in fine, granular, massive form; the only important ore of mercury. Also known as cinnabarite; vermilion.

cinnabar

1. a bright red or brownish-red mineral form of mercuric sulphide (mercury(II) sulphide), found close to areas of volcanic activity and hot springs. It is the main commercial source of mercury. Formula: HgS. Crystal structure: hexagonal
2. the red form of mercuric sulphide (mercury(II) sulphide), esp when used as a pigment
3. a bright red to reddish-orange; vermilion
4. a large red-and-black European moth, Callimorpha jacobaeae: family Arctiidae (tiger moths, etc.)
References in periodicals archive ?
The tansy in our area has outlived and survived longer than its one natural enemy, the caterpillar-like larvae of the cinnabar moth.
IN reply to Derek Nash's query about the caterpillar in his photo (Your View, July 12), it is the caterpillar of the Cinnabar moth and feeds on yellow flowered plants like groundsel, coltsfoot and ragwort in July and August.
To a small child, some 60 years ago, the orange and black caterpillars of the Cinnabar Moth were an everyday sight, feeding on ragwort.
Prof Derek Knottenbelt, of Liverpool University, believes everyone has a responsibility to tackle the "hooligan weed" - and said conservation-ists may be wrongly sheltering the plant to protect the cinnabar moth.
Sadly as the caterpillars of the pretty red and black Cinnabar moth do not have the appetite of cabbage white's caterpillars, horse keepers will have to wait for a heavy rain storm before pulling out the ragwort plan or put a flock of old ewes in to graze new plant growth after cutting.
The dunes and grassland, with plants like Grass of Parnassus, are habitats for dark green fritillary and grayling butterflies, woolly bear tiger moth caterpillars, and the red and green cinnabar moth.
One way is to encourage the black and red cinnabar moth, whose caterpillars - with alternating black and orange rings - feed on ragwort.