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Logic (of arguments) futile because the truth of the premises cannot be established independently of the conclusion



an order issued by a state organ or public body or a clarification of the procedure for applying an act. A circular is distributed to subordinate institutions and organizations and generally deals with one or more problems of an official nature. Until 1936, in the USSR a circular was an official act promulgated by the head of a people’s commissariat.

References in classic literature ?
BABE, not baby," corrected Rebecca from the circular.
After descending a rather sharp declivity, our feet trod the bottom of a kind of circular pit.
Then suddenly he noticed with a start that some of the grey clinker, the ashy incrustation that covered the meteorite, was falling off the circular edge of the end.
His weather-beaten and handsome face, his portly presence, his shirt- fronts and broad cuffs and gold links, his air of bluff distinction, impressed the humble beholders (stevedores, tally clerks, tide-waiters) as he walked ashore over the gangway of his ship lying at the Circular Quay in Sydney.
The frigate, immediately upon coming to an anchor, got springs on her cables, and with he guns; cast loose and her men at their quarters, lay in the circular basin of Papeete, with her broadside bearing upon the devoted town; while her numerous cutters, hauled in order alongside, were ready to effect a landing, under cover of her batteries.
The site of the village is in a perfectly circular valley, about a quarter of a mile in circumference, and entirely surrounded by gentle hills, over whose summit the people have never yet ventured to pass.
In brief - distinct grounds, and vivid circular or cycloid figures, of no meaning, are here Median laws.
About us the vast circular coliseum was packed to its full capacity.
Not ten minutes later we came into a vast circular apartment of white marble, the walls of which were inlaid with gold in the strange hieroglyphics of the First Born.
The car, which was of a circular form and fifteen feet in diameter, was made of wicker-work, strengthened with a slight covering of iron, and protected below by a system of elastic springs, to deaden the shock of collision.
There is nothing so refreshing after a sleepless night as a cup of this delicious Russian tea," Lorrain was saying with an air of restrained animation as he stood sipping tea from a delicate Chinese handleless cup before a table on which tea and a cold supper were laid in the small circular room.
In the circular piece of ground in front of the verandah were two cracked vases, from which red flowers drooped, with a stone fountain between them, now parched in the sun.