clarification


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clarification

[‚klar·ə·fə′kā·shən]
(chemical engineering)
The removal of small amounts (usually less than 0.2%) of fine particulate solids from liquids (such as drinking water) by methods such as gravity sedimentation, centrifugal sedimentation, filtration, and magnetic separation.

Clarification

The removal of small amounts of fine, particulate solids from liquids. The purpose is almost invariably to improve the quality of the liquid, and the removed solids often are discarded. The particles removed by a clarifier may be as large as 100 micrometers or as small as 2 micrometers. Clarification is used in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals, beverages, and fiber and film polymers; in the reconditioning of electroplating solutions; in the recovery of dry-cleaning solvent; and for the purification of drinking water and waste water. The filters in the feed line and lubricating oil system of an internal combustion engine are clarifiers.

The methods of clarification include gravity sedimentation, centrifugal sedimentation, filtration, and magnetic separation. Clarification differs from other applications of these mechanical separation techniques by the low solid content of the suspension to be clarified (usually less than 0.2%) and the substantial completion of the particle removal. See Filtration, Magnetic separation methods, Mechanical separation techniques, Sedimentation (industry)

References in periodicals archive ?
Under the clarification, if an officer stops someone who has a conviction for a violent felony, say, one of those nasty Mara Salvatrucha gangsters who's been deported but has evidently returned illegally to the United States, the officer may indeed arrest that hoodlum for immigration violations if for no other reason.
Rossi sent the following letter to Jeffrey Owens, Head of the OECD's Centre for Tax Policy and Administration concerning the proposed clarifications of the definition of permanent establishment under the OECD's Model Tax Convention.
Although initially many SNFs believed that a prospective payment system would provide guaranteed coverage for the full interval between assessments and that daily assessments of skilled needs were unnecessary, HCFA's clarification in Transmittal 405 asserted that daily assessments of skilled care were still necessary.
As a consequence of this clarification, the Service can be expected to abandon its current litigating position, thereby allowing corporations to amortize such loan costs without the threat of challenge.
Francisco Rivera, president of the National Central American Roundtable, asked the Police Commission to ``postpone the adoption of the clarification because of the climate of fear'' generated by actions like those in Orange County and Congress.
Employers already have accounted for a significant number of sales, and the incentives contained in tax clarification provisions are likely to create even more growth in the employer market.