conditioning

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Related to classical conditioning: operant conditioning

conditioning:

see learninglearning,
in psychology, the process by which a relatively lasting change in potential behavior occurs as a result of practice or experience. Learning is distinguished from behavioral changes arising from such processes as maturation and illness, but does apply to motor skills,
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.

conditioning

a term used in LEARNING THEORY or BEHAVIOURISM meaning the process of training or changing behaviour by association and reinforcement. There are two basic types of conditioning – classical and operant.

Classical conditioning was defined by I. Pavlov (1911) in his research on the salivary reflex in dogs. He observed that if a neutral stimulus (NS) is paired with an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) so that they become ‘associated’, then the NS develops the same ability to evoke a response as the UCS. Thus the NS becomes a conditioned stimulus (CS) and the response becomes a conditioned response (CR). This type of conditioning occurs only in involuntary behaviours such as salivation, sweating, heart rate and other behaviours controlled by the autonomic nervous system, and such a conditioned response may therefore be known as a CONDITIONED REFLEX. Reinforcement is delivered regardless of response, as it precedes it and is typically also the UCS (food in the case of Pavlovs experiment).

Operant or instrumental conditioning was defined and extensively researched by B.F. Skinner (1953). It involves training voluntary responses as the reinforcement is only delivered after the response and is contingent upon the response. Learning or conditioning involves the development of an association or bond between a stimulus and a response by reinforcing responses when they occur. Because reinforcement follows response, respondent behaviour can be manipulated by varying when the reinforcement is given (schedules of reinforcement). Learning is more resistant to extinction if the schedule of reinforcement used in training is related to the responses and is unpredictable. An example of this is gambling on a fruit machine. Extinction is the fading and disappearance of behaviour through non-reinforcement, e.g. socially unacceptable behaviour should be disregarded and not reinforced. Behaviour can be shaped towards a desirable end by the reinforcement of successive approximations to this. In this way, animals can be taught to do ‘tricks’ which would not be found in their normal repertoire of behaviour. Shaping principles underlie much of the control we exert over each other behaviour, especially childrens.

conditioning

[kən′dish·ən·iŋ]
(electronics)
Equipment modifications or adjustments necessary to match transmission levels and impedances or to provide equalization between facilities.
(graphic arts)
Restoration of microfilm for use after it has been stored for a period of time.
(science and technology)
Subjecting a material or organism to a stipulated treatment or stimulus so that it will respond in a uniform and desired manner to subsequent testing or processing.

conditioning

Extra cost options in a private telephone line that improve performance by reducing distortion and amplifying weak signals.
References in periodicals archive ?
The significance of investigating bidirectional relations is made apparent in classical conditioning research with humans.
The Japanese were masters at using classical conditioning with their soldiers.
Of course, this theoretical argument does not mean that classical conditioning could not explain some laboratory-based phenomenon related to this form of conditioning, but rather that it is unlikely to be a valid explanation of the "real world" phenomenon.
We use classical conditioning methods, through which the chimps learn to associate receiving rewards with the sound of a clicker.
According to Hunter, the effect looks conspicuously like a classical conditioning phenomenon, wherein prior exposure to the actual drug may have produced the specific prefrontal brain response and subsequent exposure to the cues surrounding drug administration - the relationship with the doctor or nurse, the medical treatment setting, the act of taking a prescribed pill and so forth - came to elicit a similar brain response through 'conditioning' or 'associative learning.
While classical conditioning is no doubt a standard part of most if not all introductory psychology courses, habituation is less prevalent as a topic.
Back in the 1890s, Ivan Pavlov experimented with classical conditioning by ringing a bell every time he fed his dog.
Ivan Pavlov and his study of classical conditioning, and, of course, that of John B.
Topics discussed include hard-wired "fixed action pattern" behavior, why behaviors or fixed action patterns can fire at inappropriate times, how such phenomena can interfere even with expert training attempts to control aggression using operant and classical conditioning, which breeds and groups of dogs are more likely to have strong predatory instincts, and much more.
SIR - Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (Russian psychologist) first described the phenomenon of classical conditioning after noticing that dogs salivate when they thought he was bringing them food.
Simply put, classical conditioning (Pavlov) and operant learning (Skinner) are the foundations for how we help people to change their behaviors.
The classical conditioning model applies when a history of painful oral health care treatment or an unpleasant oral health care experience results in expectations of painful future treatment (Davey, 1989; Vassend, 1993).

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