is similar to both Proterocara and Mahengechromis from the Eocene of Argentina and Tanzania, respectively, but closer to Proterocara in form (Murray, 2001a; Malabarba et al.
Fish species were identified based on morphological differences of the following fish parts: os maxillare, intermaxillare, dentale, pharyngeum, operculare, praeoperculare, cleithrum
, basioccipitale, praevomer, and chewing pads (Carss & Marquiss 1999, Cech et al.
, under the operculum, with a furrow (groove) on the ventral side, a large papilla-like structure immediately above the groove; eye nearly covered by an adipose eyelid, forming a vertical slit on the center of the pupil: Selar crumenophthalmus
The long, mid-posterior preopercular spine extended beyond the cleithrum
is broad, with a broad but short anteroventral expansion.
not bifurcate); first postcleithrum not contacting cleithrum
Stridulation sounds in channel catfish are produced during pectoral spine abduction (forward fin sweeps), when ridges on the spine's base rub against a bony part of the pectoral girdle called the cleithrum
However, most gonorynchiforms examined by us exhibit a well-developed, paired ossification that is usually named 'cephalic rib' but that is strikingly similar to the ossified Baudelot's ligament of teleosts such as catfishes, connecting the cleithrum
and/or supracleithrum to the posteromesial surface of the neurocranium (usually exoccipital and/or basioccipital) (e.
58] Posterior flange of cleithrum
(Costa 1998a) (CI: 1.
Se ubica dorsolateralmente en la cintura pectoral articulada a la escapula; tiene una parte cartilaginosa que esta ubicada dorsalmente y otra osea lateralmente que recibe el nombre de cleithrum
1) found a row of foramina near the ventrolateral angle on the inner surface of the right cleithrum
These modifications include the following: (1) the presence of a kinetic joint between the cleithrum
and supracleithrum that permits extensive anterior-posterior movement of the pectoral girdle; and (2) a greatly enlarged first branchiostegal ray and associated hyohyoideus abductor muscle that form a functional coupling with the hyoid bar [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 2 OMITTED].