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a political trend aimed at gaining a leading role for the church and clergy in social, political, and cultural life. Clerical and, under certain conditions, theocratic strivings are in essence characteristic of all religious and church organizations of a society marked by class antagonism (Catholic, Muslim, Jewish, Hindu, and Protestant, among others). The clergy and influential representatives of the ruling classes that are connected with the church are the proponents of clericalism. Catholic clericalism is one of the most active. Treaties between the Vatican and governments of several states serve as a most important means for securing a strong alliance between the Catholic Church and bourgeois states and for guaranteeing the church’s influence. Until the mid-19th century clericalism expressed primarily the interests of the feudal-aristocratic circles in Western Europe. Even today in the Orient it expresses, for the most part, these interests. In the epoch of imperialism, clericalism has become to a significant extent a tool of monopoly capital, and it bears a clearly expressed anticommunist tendency.

Clericalism employs toward its ends not only the extensive church apparatus but also various clerical organizations, clerical political parties, and trade union, youth, women’s, cultural, and other organizations created with the direct participation of the church. The church and its organizations in the majority of bourgeois countries interfere and exert influence in the political sphere. Many of their spokesmen take the side of the most reactionary forces; in particular, they try to muster support for these reactionary forces through the religious organizations in elections to parliaments and local government posts, exerting pressure on believers. In several bourgeois countries schools are under the influence of the church and Catholic organizations; the religious authority interferes in questions regarding the family, marriage, and upbringing of children (Italy, Spain, Israel, etc).

The world revolutionary process has weakened clericalism. The leadership of clerical organizations, which uses religion for reactionary political ends and in anticommunist propaganda, is encountering growing opposition from many believers, as well as from part of the clergy.


Velikovich, L. N. Religiia i politika v sovremennom kapitalisticheskom obshchestve. Moscow, 1970.
Sheinman, M. M. Sovremennyi klerikalizm. Moscow, 1964.
Maier, H. and P. Stier. Fashizm i politicheskii klerikalizm. Moscow, 1963. (Translated from German.)
Albrecht, E. Antikommunizm—ideologiia klerikal’nogo militarizma. Moscow, 1963. (Translated from German.)
Ellwein, Th. Klerikalismus in der deutschen Politik. Munich, 1955.


References in periodicals archive ?
Not surprisingly, it was the most notorious cases of clerical sexual misconduct that drew the attention of authorities and could lead to severe punishments (including excommunication and even incarceration) for both concubine and cleric.
Post-Obama Washington will have to decide whether it really intends to humble and contain the clerical regime.
Last year, DBM claimed that the extra pork allocated for several legislators indicated in the COA report on PDAF released last year was just a clerical error.
Meanwhile, Mr Allister slammed the decision not to include clerical abuse as a missed opportunity.
She asserts that for Luther and other Protestant reformers, clerical marriage was "iconoclastic" (145, 183) in that it helped to smash not only papal authority and its unrealistic demands, but also false notions of ordained clergy as set apart and sacred, and notions of a works righteousness that would presume to earn merit before God through ascetical renunciation of sexual activity.
The clerical regime's ambassador in Baghdad, Hassan Danaifar, who is also a commander of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) and its extraterritorial arm the Qods Force, has personally lobbied the Iraqi Human Rights Minister in a meeting to support the regime's intelligence agents who have camped in front of Ashraf since February.
Clerical work in higher education need neither be meaningless nor dead-end work and academic women can take the lead to ensure that it is meaningful and educative for the many women and few men who get paid to do it.
Chicago used to be the imperial seal embossed on America's clerical culture.
Beyond that theme, the articles traverse broad chronological and topical ground, offering examinations of such subjects as the Nujtavi movement of the 15th to 17th century, the reactions of mujtahids (religious scholars) to Christian evangelicalism in the early 19th century, the nature of the clerical hierarchy and the emergence of the "source of emulations" in the 19th century as the form of clerical authority, the changes in understandings of clerical authority promoted by Ayatollah Khomenei, the role of the American "Great Satan" in achieving discipline over the revolutionary self and its roots in the demonology of Cold War propaganda, and expressions of popular piety in contemporary Iran.
Summary: Pope Benedict XVI has met with a group of self-described clerical abuse victims during a trip to the small mediterranean island of Malta.
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For nearly a century, clerical work has been the archetypal paid job for women in North America.