Enclitic

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Enclitic

 

an unstressed word that in speech becomes attached to the previous stressed word. The two words together form an accentual unit, or phonetic word. The most common enclitics in Russian are particles, such as by, zhe, -ka, li, and -to, as in gdé-by and ddi-ka. Pronouns, nouns, and verbs, depending on the context, can also function as enclitics, as in the sentence Gdé byl étot chelovék? (“Where was that man?”)

References in periodicals archive ?
It is quite likely that their clitic placement has been influenced by pragmatic and phonological factors (cf.
Both the low achievers and high achievers showed evidence of preterite tense, person/number/gender agreement morphology, infinitival constructions, gerundive constructions, imperatives, articles and possessive determiners, auxiliaries, accusative and dative clitic pronouns, reflexive pronouns, the subjunctive mood, and correct use of irregular verbs.
These relate essentially to the manner of presenting the texts on the question first of the clitic stop: although it is applied in exemplary fashion for most of the time, it has also been used to construct syntactic units like `mes si', `she has placed herself', where one would expect simply mes si, with disjunctive use of the pronoun.
In Classical Arabic the particle iyya + pronominal object, which later itself became a verbal clitic (see (39), below), can mark an independent pronoun object, as in Q 1:4 (Sibawayhi 1970, 1: 336, 346), though unlike inna and oot-, iyya cannot mark a topic or subject.
Note that Dryer does not differentiate between free and clitic particles.
2) In Spanish, a reflexive clitic pronoun se marks the suppression of an arbitrary human subject.
Abbreviations 1, 2, 3 first, second, third person ABE abessive ADE adessive ADJ adjective ALL allative CLC clitic COM comitative COND conditional dINF da-infinitive EL elative ESS essive FEM female GEN genetive GER gerund ILL illative IMP imperative IMPS impersonal INE inessive JUSS jussive mINF ma-infinitive NEG negation marker PL plural POSTP postposition PRCL particle PRS present PRTV partitive PST simple past PRTCP presnt participle PTCP past participle Q question marker QUOT quotative SG singular TRM terminative TRNSL translative
Both words were either transitive or intransitive, and both contained a clitic (la, lo) for direct objects or a reflexive se, if necessary (Bicaci 1995).
Clitic, Suffix and Particle: Some Indispensable Distinctions in Old Javanese Grammar.
12) content item > grammatical word > clitic > inflectional affix
Secondo Maiden (170), il quale riprende Rohlfs, si tratta di una forma di probabile origine gallo-romanza anziche italo-romanza: "Its exotic origins are reflected in its still imperfect integration into the clitic system: unlike other clitics it is bisyllabic.