Johann Friedrich Blumenbach

(redirected from clivus)
Also found in: Medical, Wikipedia.

Blumenbach, Johann Friedrich

(yōhän` frē`drĭkh blo͞o`mənbäkh), 1752–1840, German naturalist and anthropologist. He introduced and developed the science of comparative anatomy in Germany. His De generis humani varietate nativa (1775; tr. On the Natural Varieties of Mankind, 1865, repr. 1969) marked the beginnings of physical anthropology and described the five divisions of mankind which have been the basis of all subsequent racial classifications. Blumenbach's analysis of an extensive skull collection, published as Collectio craniorum diversarum gentium (1790–1828), established craniometric study. English translations of his works include The Anthropological Treatises of Johann Friedrich Blumenbach (1865, repr. 1969).

Blumenbach, Johann Friedrich


Born May 11, 1752, in Gotha; died Jan. 1, 1840, in Göttingen. German anatomist, zoologist, and anthropologist; professor at Göttingen University (from 1778).

Blumenbach was one of the founders of modern anthropology and initiator of craniology, the study of human and animal skulls. He described five races of modern man and noted the existence of mixed races. He was the first to raise the question of the monophyletic origin of human races—that is, he regarded them as varieties of a single human species formed by climatic factors. He opposed the doctrine of preformation. In his attempts to explain the life processes and development of organisms he defended the vitalistic view, admitting the existence of an unknowable “formative striving.”


De generis humani varietate nativa, 2nd ed. Göttingen, 1781.
Über den Bildungstrieb. Gottingen, 1791.
Handbuch der vergleichenden Anatomie, 3rd ed. Göttingen, 1824.
In Russian translation:
Rukovodstvopo estestvennoi istorii, parts 1–2. St. Petersburg, 1797.
Mentioned in ?
References in periodicals archive ?
Delgado TE, Bucheit WA, Surgical management of tumors in and around the clivus via the transoral approach, Contemp Neurosurg, 1982; 4, Lesson 10.
There was smooth enhancement of dura along the sphenoid wing, right tentorial incisura and clivus (Figure 2B).
The characteristic soap-bubble appearance is helpful in differentiating chondrosarcoma from other bony lesions such as chordomas, which develop primarily in the central clivus area and may extend laterally to the temporal bone.
Flattening of the ventral pons along the surface of the clivus suggest intracranial hypotension.
No fractures of the clivus or the upper cervical vertebrae is noted.
In 2012 he took four victories: Divinus Bike Clivus, Lessinia Bike Legend, Sella Ronda Hero and Colombian XCO Championships.
Also on hand will be representatives from Clivus New England with information on composting.
MRI of the brain showed an enhancing soft tissue mass extending from the left sphenoid sinus posteriorly to involve the clivus, cavernous sinus, pituitary fossa and the prepontine space.
Rarely, they grow downward to erode the bone of the sellar floor, into the sphenoid sinus, and even into the nasal cavity (9) or may invade posteriorly to involve or destroy the clivus.
The presenting symptoms of nasopharyngeal tuberculosis are cervical lymphadenopathy (most common), epistaxis, hearing loss, tinnitus, otalgia, nasal obstruction, post-nasal drip, snoring, diplopia or osteomyelitis of the clivus.
It crosses the superior cerebellar artery close to the cerebral peduncles, passes the lateral edge of the clivus bone, and runs under the petroclinoidal ligament into the cavernous sinus between the double layer of dura and connective tissue at its lateral border, just below the oculomotor nerve and above the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve.
42) The Clivus ad Carinas passed along the south-eastern side of the precinct, a street lined with tabernae belonging to the Horrea Piperataria.