Johann Friedrich Blumenbach

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Blumenbach, Johann Friedrich

(yōhän` frē`drĭkh blo͞o`mənbäkh), 1752–1840, German naturalist and anthropologist. He introduced and developed the science of comparative anatomy in Germany. His De generis humani varietate nativa (1775; tr. On the Natural Varieties of Mankind, 1865, repr. 1969) marked the beginnings of physical anthropology and described the five divisions of mankind which have been the basis of all subsequent racial classifications. Blumenbach's analysis of an extensive skull collection, published as Collectio craniorum diversarum gentium (1790–1828), established craniometric study. English translations of his works include The Anthropological Treatises of Johann Friedrich Blumenbach (1865, repr. 1969).

Blumenbach, Johann Friedrich


Born May 11, 1752, in Gotha; died Jan. 1, 1840, in Göttingen. German anatomist, zoologist, and anthropologist; professor at Göttingen University (from 1778).

Blumenbach was one of the founders of modern anthropology and initiator of craniology, the study of human and animal skulls. He described five races of modern man and noted the existence of mixed races. He was the first to raise the question of the monophyletic origin of human races—that is, he regarded them as varieties of a single human species formed by climatic factors. He opposed the doctrine of preformation. In his attempts to explain the life processes and development of organisms he defended the vitalistic view, admitting the existence of an unknowable “formative striving.”


De generis humani varietate nativa, 2nd ed. Göttingen, 1781.
Über den Bildungstrieb. Gottingen, 1791.
Handbuch der vergleichenden Anatomie, 3rd ed. Göttingen, 1824.
In Russian translation:
Rukovodstvopo estestvennoi istorii, parts 1–2. St. Petersburg, 1797.
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Thirteen and three cases with tumors in clivus received total and subtotal tumor removal, respectively.
The posterior cranial fossa was defined as the osseous anatomical area with a floor formed by the occipital bone (basiocciput portion of the clivus and supraocciput portion of the occipital bone up to the insertion of the tentorium cerebelli, which formed the superior boundary of this fossa) and the basisphenoid.
Destruction of the clivus is appreciable, which may also give rise to the appearance of intratumoral calcification.
The tumor had a broad attachment that spanned from orbit to orbit and from clivus to the ethmoid roof.
Post contrast T1 MRI weighted images detected diffuse enhancement in the area of the right cavernous sinus, extending basally towards the trigeminal cave and anteriorly towards the apex of the right orbit, with right-sided temporal-basal dural sheath imbibition and along the clivus.
Aneurysmal bone cyst occurring in the base of skull, particularly clivus is a rare occurrence and accounts for less than or equal to 1% of the cases.
Los meningiomas petroclivales constituyen del 3 al 10% de los meningiomas de la fosa posterior (1), se originan e implantan en la fisura petroclival, en los 2/3 superiores del clivus, apex petroso y medial al nervio trigemino (2).
2 The tumour forming remnants of notochord called ecchondrosis physaliphora are found in clivus and nucleus pulposus, but ectopic remnants have also been documented in the literature.
Sage, "Traumatic avulsion fracture of the occipital condyles and clivus with associated unilateral atlantooccipital distraction, " American Journal of Neuroradiology, vol.
Results: The first finding was the presence of an unusual shallow incomplete median bony canal on the clivus in the basiocciput region.
Direct graphies of the cranium revealed cellar enlargement and fibrous dysplasia (FD) in the clivus and mandible, but no anomaly was found on the graphies of the other long bones and pelvis.
Delgado TE, Bucheit WA, Surgical management of tumors in and around the clivus via the transoral approach, Contemp Neurosurg, 1982; 4, Lesson 10.