cluster

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cluster,

in astronomy: see star clusterstar cluster,
a group of stars near each other in space and resembling each other in certain characteristics that suggest a common origin for the group. Stars in the same cluster move at the same rate and in the same direction.
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; galaxygalaxy,
large aggregation of stars, gas, and dust, typically containing billions of stars. Recognition that galaxies are independent star systems outside the Milky Way came from a study of the Andromeda Galaxy (1926–29) by Edwin P.
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.

cluster

A group of stars whose members are sufficiently close to each other to be physically associated. Clusters range from dense congregations of many thousands of stars to loose groups of only a few stars. Current theories of stellar evolution suggest that stars form in associations, whose densest groupings remain bound as clusters while the other stars disperse; this view is supported by the relatively well-defined Hertzsprung–Russell diagrams of clusters, which indicate that cluster members are of essentially the same composition and age (see also turnoff point). Because the stars in a cluster are all at approximately the same distance, the observed differences in appearance are believed to be due mainly to differences in mass. An estimate of distance is obtained from the technique of main-sequence fitting. See globular cluster; open cluster.

Cluster

An ESA mission to study in three dimensions the shape and dynamic behavior of small-scale structures in the Earth's plasma environment. In effect, Cluster is examining ‘space weather’ – that is, the interaction between the particles of the solar wind and the Earth's magnetosphere. The mission consists of four identical 500-kg satellites, carrying the same 10 instruments. The satellites were carried into space in two pairs by Russian-made Soyuz rockets during the summer of 2000. The first pair, nicknamed Salsa and Samba, were launched July 16, followed by the second pair, Rumba and Tango, launched Aug. 9. The Cluster craft were scheduled to operate until 2005. The mission, which was designated Cluster II, was the replacement for an earlier failed mission. The original Cluster satellites were to have been sent into space together in June 1996, on an Ariane-5 rocket, but were destroyed when the rocket unexpectedly tilted and broke up soon after liftoff.

Cluster

Any configuration of elements that are grouped or gathered closely together.

cluster

[′kləs·tər]
(astronomy)
(computer science)
In a clustered file, one of the classes into which records with similar sets of content identifiers are grouped.
A grouping of hardware devices in a distributed processing system.
A group of disk sectors that is treated as a single entity by the operating system
(engineering)
A pyrotechnic signal consisting of a group of stars or fireballs.
A grouping of rocket motors fastened together.
(ordnance)
A collection of small bombs held together by an adapter for dropping.

cluster

i. Several bomblets forming part of a bomb as in cluster bomb. Once a bomb is released from the aircraft, individual bomblets are dispensed by the bomb.
ii. Two or more parachutes linked to support a single load.
iii. Several engines controlled by a single throttle.

cluster

1. Astronomy an aggregation of stars or galaxies moving together through space
2. Chem
a. a chemical compound or molecule containing groups of metal atoms joined by metal-to-metal bonds
b. the group of linked metal atoms present

cluster

(architecture)
Multiple servers providing the same service. The term may imply resilience to failure and/or some kind of load balancing between the servers. Compare RAIS.

cluster

(file system)
An elementary unit of allocation of a disk made up of one or more physical blocks.

A file is made up of a whole number of possibly non-contiguous clusters. The cluster size is a tradeoff between space efficiency (the bigger is the cluster, the bigger is on the average the wasted space at the end of each file) and the length of the FAT.

cluster

(1) Two or more systems working together. See clustering.

(2) Also called an "allocation unit" or "file allocation unit," it is a number of disk sectors treated as a unit. A cluster is the smallest unit of storage the operating system's file system can manage. That means if a 1KB file is stored in a system with a 32KB cluster (see table below), the 1KB file takes up 32KB of disk space.

Following are the cluster sizes for the FAT file systems for hard drives. When FAT32 came out, drive sizes were minuscule by today's standards, and the reduction of cluster size from 16KB and 32KB to 4KB** saved a lot of disk space for small files. See FAT, FAT32 and lost cluster.

                      Cluster Size                      FAT16   FAT32   Drive Size         (1984)  (1996)

        0-128MB         2KB
      128-256MB         4KB
      256-512MB         8KB
    512MB-1GB          16KB    4KB**
        1-2GB          32KB    4KB**
        1-8GB                  4KB**
        8-16GB                 8KB
       16-32GB                16KB
          32GB +              32KB
References in classic literature ?
But as for the old structure of our story, its white-oak frame, and its boards, shingles, and crumbling plaster, and even the huge, clustered chimney in the midst, seemed to constitute only the least and meanest part of its reality.
There were pears and apples, clustered high in blooming pyramids; there were bunches of grapes, made, in the shopkeepers' benevolence to dangle from conspicuous hooks, that people's mouths might water gratis as they passed; there were piles of filberts, mossy and brown, recalling, in their fragrance, ancient walks among the woods, and pleasant shufflings ankle deep through withered leaves; there were Norfolk Biffins, squab and swarthy, setting off the yellow of the oranges and lemons, and, in the great compactness of their juicy persons, urgently entreating and beseeching to be carried home in paper bags and eaten after dinner.
In the large kitchen, where I dimly saw bacon and ropes of onions hanging from the beams, the watchers were clustered together, in various attitudes, about a table, purposely moved away from the great chimney, and brought near the door.
As I looked along the clustered roofs, with Church towers and spires shooting into the unusually clear air, the sun rose up, and a veil seemed to be drawn from the river, and millions of sparkles burst out upon its waters.
Then, standing far beneath, he lifted up his voice, and it reached the thousands of those who clustered upon the slopes.
Neither of these lower rooms is lighted except from a hole in the floor of the third story; the room in which, as well as in that above it, is finished with compact smooth stonework, both having chimney-pieces, with an arch resting on triple clustered pillars.
Her hair clustered round her face like dark leaves round a pale rose.
The landlord, who was of the fraternity, ran at once to fetch his staff of office and his sword, and ranged himself on the side of his comrades; the servants of Don Luis clustered round him, lest he should escape from them in the confusion; the barber, seeing the house turned upside down, once more laid hold of his pack-saddle and Sancho did the same; Don Quixote drew his sword and charged the officers; Don Luis cried out to his servants to leave him alone and go and help Don Quixote, and Cardenio and Don Fernando, who were supporting him; the curate was shouting at the top of his voice, the landlady was screaming, her daughter was wailing, Maritornes was weeping, Dorothea was aghast, Luscinda terror-stricken, and Dona Clara in a faint.
The little stretch of level land was white with Indian tepees, and there were probably half a thousand red warriors clustered around some object near the center of the camp.
I shall never forget the last glimpse which I had of the inn yard and its crowd of picturesque figures,all crossing themselves, as they stood round the wide archway, with its background of rich foliage of oleander and orange trees in green tubs clustered in the centre of the yard.
On reaching this point, the pedlar no longer saw the man on horseback, but found himself at the head of the village street, not far from a number of stores and two taverns, clustered round the meeting-house steeple.
So they came into the room together, anti clustered round Grandfather's great chair.
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