co-operation


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co-operation

  1. shared action to achieve a desired goal.
  2. voluntary organizations of producers or consumers characterized by collaborative rather than competitive capitalist relations between those involved.
In the general sense 1 , it is something of a paradox that those engaged in mutual conflict, even warfare, must often co-operate, at least to some degree, in order to maintain the conflict. Thus, the widespread existence of co-operation within social organizations and societies does not necessarily answer the question of whether co-operation or competition is the decisive social cement of societies, e.g. underlying the DIVISION OF LABOUR.

In sense 2 , the major reference is to the co-operative organizations, and the wider Co-operative Movement dating from the early 19th century in Europe. These derived from the ideas of socialists such as Robert Owen (1771-1858) and the democratic and participatory principles established by the Rochdale Pioneers, who established the first retail co-operative in 1844. As producer and marketing organizations, co-operatives have been especially effective in agriculture. In general, in the context of a wider capitalist system, co-operative organizations have tended to suffer from undercapitalization and poor organization.

References in classic literature ?
He is forced to admit that the state is not possible without the co-operation of men whom he will not admit to membership in it, either because they are not capable of sufficient rational appreciation of political ends, like the barbarians whom he thought were natural slaves, or because the leisure necessary for citizenship can only be gained by the work of the artisans who by that very work make themselves incapable of the life which they make possible for others.
But the universal necessity of living, of drinking, of eating-- in short, the whole scientific conviction that this necessity can only be satisfied by universal co-operation and the solidarity of interests--is, it seems to me, a strong enough idea to serve as a basis, so to speak, and a 'spring of life,' for humanity in future centuries," said Gavrila Ardalionovitch, now thoroughly roused.
After the ruin of the village, the destruction of the forts which dominated it, a ruin and destruction magically wrought without the co-operation of a single human being, the flames were extinguished, the smoke began to subside, then diminished in intensity, paled and disappeared entirely.
So Bert, slightly refreshed by coffee and sleep, resumed his helpless co-operation in the War in the Air.
In the sky soared the German airships like beings in a different, entirely more orderly world, all oriented to the same angle of the horizon, uniform in build and appearance, moving accurately with one purpose as a pack of wolves will move, distributed with the most precise and effectual co-operation.
Not only was the New York Government a weak one and insufficiently provided with police, but the destruction of the City Hall--and Post-Offide and other central ganglia had hopelessly disorganised the co-operation of part with part.
And now, in closing, we bid farewell to our staff and thank them one and all for their help and co-operation in the past year.
President Barbicane undertook, despite of the matter being a purely American affair, to render it one of universal interest, and to request the financial co-operation of all peoples.
The only co-operation which is commonly possible is exceedingly partial and superficial; and what little true co-operation there is, is as if it were not, being a harmony inaudible to men.
By the co-operation of different writers in carrying out this plan it was hoped that a thoroughness and completeness of treatment, otherwise unattainable, might be secured.
Clennam cheering him with a hearty co-operation, was a moral support to him, besides doing good service in his business relation.
Mrs Lam said at the meeting, the two sides signed the detailed 2014 Work Plan for Hong Kong-Guangdong Co-operation developed on the basis of the consensus from the 16th Plenary of the Hong Kong-Guangdong Co-operation Joint Conference held last September, and also discussed the implementation strategy.