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one of the forms of systematization of laws and other legislative instruments regulating some field of social relations. Codification is the most efficient and highest form of systematization: through codification the laws in force are separated from those that are no longer binding, and completely new norms in the given branch are created. As a rule, codification is concluded by the creation of a new consolidated (systematized) act built on uniform principles (most often in the form of a code).

Well-known historical examples of codification include the Justinian codification in Roman times, the French Civil Code of 1804, Russkaia Pravda (Russian Law), and the Russian Sudebnik (Law Code) of 1497.

In the USSR, the 1960’s and the early 1970’s saw the comprehensive codification of legislation in various fields of social relations. During these years the Basic Principles of the Legislation of the USSR and the Union Republics were adopted in civil law and judicial proceedings, criminal law and judicial proceedings, and judicial administration; also adopted were basic codes in such areas as family law, labor legislation, land law, and water use legislation. In the Union republics new codes of laws were adopted (for example, codes of labor laws, codes on marriage and the family, and civil codes).

Of great importance is the codification of international law: the systematization of international legal rules in force allows for more precise definitions and for the correction and removal of all existing contradictions. A distinction is made between an official codification, which is conducted jointly by all or several states (including intergovernmental organizations), and an unofficial or scientific codification, conducted by international and national social organizations (the Institute of International Law, the International Law Association) or individual jurists. A general codification of all branches of international law has not yet been implemented. After World War II, intensive work was done on a partial codification of individual institutes of international law. In the 19th and 20th centuries the Hague Conventions were such a codification; these conventions concerned the laws and customs of war and the settlement of disputes by peaceful means. After World War II, important instruments adopted on the initiative of the USSR included the Geneva Conventions of 1949 and 1958 and the Vienna Conventions of 1961 and 1963 on Diplomatic and Consular Relations.

The codification of socialist international legal principles and norms has been implemented in such multilateral treaties and agreements as the Warsaw Pact of 1955; the Charter of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance; the Convention on Legal Capacity, Privileges, and Immunities of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance; and the General Conditions of Deliveries of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance of 1968. Codifications have also been implemented in bilateral agreements between socialist countries in the fields of science, culture, and public health and social security.

References in periodicals archive ?
Bringing the Concept Codify customers onto the Optimal Workshop platform allows their surveys and results to live on.
With Codify, developers decide how much of their code is generated and where - A
The refinements in today's action both codify and clarify certain aspects of this unprecedented and complex rezoning.
This bill would generally codify the "substantial performance" concept currently in the California FTB regulations to allow taxpayers the election even where they have inadvertently failed to satisfy all procedural requirements.
But to codify certain categories of victims as worthy of greater attention is getting back to this crazy liberal idea of fixating on people's races and is to say that other victims are less deserving,'' Ellmers said.
and senior members of the accounting profession in establishing the Independence Standards Board, a private-sector body charged to create, codify, amend and preserve independence standards for auditors of public companies.
During the early Soviet times, Agrippina Vaganova, at the Leningrad Choreographic School, began to develop and codify these existing elements into what is sometimes referred to as the Vaganova Method.
Process templates enable CIOs and their software development teams to customize and define consistent processes for their particular projects by allowing organizations to codify all lifecycle phases: requirements definition, design, deployment, and other process-related activities.
The eight-member board was formed by the Securities and Exchange Commission and the AICPA to create, codify, amend and preserve independence standards for auditors of public companies.
The plan to codify welfare shelter allowances as part of Governor George Pataki's budgetary plans is getting a Bronx cheer from an owner's group that at the very least would like to see direct payment of the shelter allowance.
To throw another wrench into the works, Petronio was able to isolate and codify only a meager roster of movements from the private stash.