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instruction of both sexes in the same institution. The economic benefits gained from joint classes and the need to secure equality for women in industrial, professional, and political activities have influenced the spread of coeducation. There were scattered examples of coeducation in the late 17th cent. in Scotland and in the American Colonies, but there was no general trend until the great expansion of public education between 1830 and 1845 in the developing W United States. The distance between schools in that region and the small number of pupils caused elementary schools to admit girls. The movement spread naturally to the secondary schools during the reorganization of public education after the Civil War. Oberlin College gave degrees to both men and women as early as 1837, but it was the development of state universities during the post–Civil War era that standardized collegiate coeducation. Since 1960 nearly every formerly single-sex college has become coeducational; only about one hundred, mostly historic women's schools and men's seminaries, remain. The coeducational movement encountered stronger resistance outside the United States. In Europe, the Scandinavian countries were the earliest supporters, but many other nations limited coeducation to institutions of higher learning. Although coeducation has expanded since World War II, there are many nations where it still meets opposition on religious and cultural grounds.


See C. Lasser, ed., Educating Men and Women Together (1987); D. Tyack and E. Hansot, Learning Together (1990).


instruction in schools, colleges, etc., attended by both sexes
References in periodicals archive ?
Her meticulously researched and gracefully written volume reveals the heated confrontations and complicated negotiations that took place during the years before and after the first single-sex colleges she profiles made the transition to coeducation in 1969.
Not surprisingly, "VMI's Southern heritage and reverence for tradition have influenced its legal struggles" (68) and compelled it to repeatedly assert that coeducation would fundamentally alter and thus ultimately destroy the VMI Experience.
I prefer coeducation as it creates an atmosphere of equality and understanding.
515 (1996), Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg--a longtime advocate of equal rights for women--rejected VMI's contention that coeducation would fundamentally alter the VMI experience and destroy VMI's unique adversative educational system.
Now we will pursue civil disobedience until other prohibitions and obligations such as wearing a tie, teachers with beards and coeducation come to a halt," members stated.
At one key gathering, the proponents of coeducation read a letter that proved decisive.
Athletics helped Connecticut College achieve an enrollment of 40 percent men within its first decade of coeducation and matriculate 50 percent men in the freshman class that entered in fall 1985 (Ames 1987, 12).
The move to coeducation often has been depicted as sporadic and episodic.
Developmental changes which are often traumatic for young adolescent females are problematic because of hurtful comments and incidents of sexual harassment which occur within many coeducation environments (Derry & Phillips, 2004; as cited in Garcia, 1994; Griffin, 1983, 1984; Lee, Carter, & Xiang, 1995; Pipher, 1994; Sadker & Sadker 1994; The Wellesley College Center for Research on Women, 1992).
This makes sense, she argues, because it was girls who participated in the "spirited jousting which took place within coeducation high schools and academics in the late nineteenth century" (373), and girls who exhibited the greatest physical freedom, riding bicycles and playing tennis.
And Gina Barecca's bitingly funny memoir, Babes in Boyland, gives a personal account of the changes at Dartmouth during the tumultuous early years of coeducation in the 1970s.