To deal with the cold-start
problem , Schein et al.
Manfredi, "Low-temperature cold-start
gaseous emissions of late technology passenger cars," Applied Energy, vol.
There are two types of cold-start
problem; new-user cold-start
problem and new-item cold- start problem [17-19].
emissions are emitted by vehicles under cold engine and are estimated as an excess to the stabilised hot emission levels.
The central issue in restarting a furnace from a cold-start
condition is the preservation of the existing refractory lining.
system is designed to be used with diesel engines from 6.
The BorgWarner Engine Group supplies the turbocharger for the Ford S-MAX gas engine model and the EGR, auxiliary cabin heater and cold-start
technology for the winning MPV's diesel model.
Topics include transient engine startup and shutdown, mixture formation, cold-start
hydrocarbon emissions mechanisms, characterization of cold engine processes, spark retardation and secondary air injection for improving catalyst light-off performance, the effects of fuel properties and fuel reforming on cold-start
hydrocarbon emissions and catalyst light-off, advanced catalyst design, the hydrocarbon trap, three-way catalytic converter system monitoring, evaporative emissions reduction, onboard diagnostics, emissions measurements and near-zero emission gasoline powered vehicle systems from BMW, Ford, Honda, Nissan, and Toyota.
We told them that, without a catalyst, the first 30 seconds of cold-start
driving blew through the proposed hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide standards, even with the EMT," says Gelb.
Choke or cold-start
device may be at fault, but you should have the car checked by a dealer.
Headquartered in Ludwigsburg, Germany, Beru AG is a global automotive supplier and manufacturer of diesel cold-start
technology (glow plugs and instant starting systems); gasoline ignition technology (spark plugs and ignition coils); and electronic and sensor technology (tire pressure sensors, diesel cabin heaters and selected sensors).
AEG Electric Motors has developed a new single-phase motor for the drive of small, oil-lubricated slide vane rotary vacuum pumps that provides the manufacturer with a technically improved and cost-efficient solution to its cold-start