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the principle of ownership of the means of production, by the state or the people


  1. any politicoeconomic doctrine which advocates communal or state ownership, and communal or state control of the means of production and distribution, e.g. COMMUNISM OR SOCIALISM.
  2. any political system in which communal or state ownership and control of the means of production and distribution is the dominant mode of economic organization. Actual forms of organization under collectivism vary widely. Thus, in some contexts, collectivism may involve a large measure of collective self-management.



a feature of socialist and communist social relations and a principle of communist morality that reveals the essence of the relationship between an individual and the society as a whole, the personality and the collective. Collectivism is the opposite of individualism. Historically, as a moral principle it originates even under the conditions of bourgeois society, within the working-class milieu, in the united actions of proletarians against the power of capital. Only in socialist society, however, does collectivism become a universal principle of relations between people in all spheres of social life, a prime requirement of personal moral conduct.

The social basis of socialist collectivism is public ownership of the means of production, which eliminates the exploitation of one person by another. Collectivism presupposes relations between society and the individual such that the development of society as a whole creates favorable conditions for the all-around development of the individual, and the development of the individual is the precondition for the progress of all of society. The main requirements that follow from the principle of collectivism in relations between people are comradely mutual assistance, the conscious acceptance and performance of one’s duty to society, the disciplined combining of social interests with those of the individual, and respect for the collective and its interests. The principle of collectivism presupposes a high degree of personal responsibility on the individual’s part: each person must answer not only for his or her own behavior and life-style but also for the fate of the collective and ultimately for the fate of society.

The program of the CPSU has as one of its aims the strengthening of collectivist tendencies in all spheres of life. The moral code of the builders of communism includes the very important principle: “collectivism and comradely mutual assistance; all for one and one for all.”

“Joint planned labor by the members of society, their daily participation in the management of state and public affairs, and the development of communist relations of comradely cooperation and mutual support result in the transformation of people’s consciousness along the lines of collectivism, industriousness, and humanism” (Programma KPSS, 1972, p. 117).

References in periodicals archive ?
They also filled out the full 15-item Adult Inventory of Procrastination Scale (AIP; McCown & Johnson, 1989; see Ferrari, Johnson, & McCown, (1995) for all items), and Individualism and Collectivism Scales (IC; 16 items, Triandis & Gelfand, 1998).
High in-group collectivism means that there is a strong distinction between in-groups and out-groups.
Because of this social behaviour become complicated, which is why understanding the differences between the individualism and collectivism are important.
Triandis (1995) echoed the opinion of Hofstede (1980) that the individualism-collectivism division does not constitute bipolar contrasts along the continuum, yet adopted a differing parlance to frame individualism and collectivism into idiocentrism and allocentrism, respectively.
The surge of racism and collectivism can readily be seen on college campuses, in the daily news, and on social media.
For overall initiation, the result was the same for institutional collectivism practices.
I measured individualism-collectivism using the 16-item Individualism and Collectivism scale (Triandis & Gelfand, 1998).
2004,) individualism and collectivism values are found to share close proximity with work attitudes and organizational behaviors of employees (e.
The findings suggest that counselors' use of the direct style leads Asian American clients who value collectivism to perceive the session as smooth, whereas counselors' use of maintaining harmony style may be more effective with Asian American clients with low adherence to emotional self-control and higher adherence to European American values.
In a widely known description of two basic psychological domains by which cultures can be described, Triandis and Gelfand (1998) identified two major types of cultural patterns: individualism and collectivism.