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the principle of ownership of the means of production, by the state or the people


  1. any politicoeconomic doctrine which advocates communal or state ownership, and communal or state control of the means of production and distribution, e.g. COMMUNISM OR SOCIALISM.
  2. any political system in which communal or state ownership and control of the means of production and distribution is the dominant mode of economic organization. Actual forms of organization under collectivism vary widely. Thus, in some contexts, collectivism may involve a large measure of collective self-management.



a feature of socialist and communist social relations and a principle of communist morality that reveals the essence of the relationship between an individual and the society as a whole, the personality and the collective. Collectivism is the opposite of individualism. Historically, as a moral principle it originates even under the conditions of bourgeois society, within the working-class milieu, in the united actions of proletarians against the power of capital. Only in socialist society, however, does collectivism become a universal principle of relations between people in all spheres of social life, a prime requirement of personal moral conduct.

The social basis of socialist collectivism is public ownership of the means of production, which eliminates the exploitation of one person by another. Collectivism presupposes relations between society and the individual such that the development of society as a whole creates favorable conditions for the all-around development of the individual, and the development of the individual is the precondition for the progress of all of society. The main requirements that follow from the principle of collectivism in relations between people are comradely mutual assistance, the conscious acceptance and performance of one’s duty to society, the disciplined combining of social interests with those of the individual, and respect for the collective and its interests. The principle of collectivism presupposes a high degree of personal responsibility on the individual’s part: each person must answer not only for his or her own behavior and life-style but also for the fate of the collective and ultimately for the fate of society.

The program of the CPSU has as one of its aims the strengthening of collectivist tendencies in all spheres of life. The moral code of the builders of communism includes the very important principle: “collectivism and comradely mutual assistance; all for one and one for all.”

“Joint planned labor by the members of society, their daily participation in the management of state and public affairs, and the development of communist relations of comradely cooperation and mutual support result in the transformation of people’s consciousness along the lines of collectivism, industriousness, and humanism” (Programma KPSS, 1972, p. 117).

References in periodicals archive ?
Given the central role of collectivism in Chinese society, we expect collectivistic Web site appeals to be schema consistent among Chinese Internet users and, therefore, require less cognitive processing than individualistic appeals, which are schema inconsistent.
The collectivistic patterns in Africa have been identified by researchers and support the usefulness of theories of self-derived from collectivism for African cultures (Eaton & Louw, 2000).
This attitude may also indicate collectivistic culture of the northernmost people whose concern over welfare of a larger society takes precedence over individual and local priorities (Hofstede 1983; Triandis et al.
Mesquita and Walker (2003) reiterated the notion that the virtues of autonomy and singularity are pursued in individualist cultures, while the fulfillment of obligations to the group at large is esteemed in collectivistic cultures.
This has led some researchers to suggest that the role of materialism in the lives of people depends on cultural contexts, with materialism contributing to happiness among consumers in collectivistic countries.
In a collectivistic culture such as India, the family is an important social unit, which influences career decisions, and hence the location of the home city plays an important role in career decisions of engineers.
National cultures with collectivistic values have a different influence on organizational culture than cultures with individualistic values.
There are 133 studies performed in over 17 countries that looked at individualistic and collectivistic societies and the results have shown that those individuals who come from collectivistic societies tend to conform more rapidly to the group norms, while others that originate in the individualistic societies value more their autonomy.
In crowd-capitalism, the return on investment could be tangible, but group identification and social esteem could play important roles to the extent that they are valued in collectivistic cultures.
However, they were developed in an individualistic culture such as the United States, and their application to Christians in a collectivistic culture such as Korea appeared to have limitations (Choi, Kim, Lee, & Lee, 2002).
Researchers attributed the negative attitudes of the Chinese to culturally-related factors such as the influence of the Confucian tradition and a collectivistic orientation (Chan et al.
It has been considered that for smooth employee-management relationship, a collectivistic representational approach towards managing employees is better (Ray, 2004).