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the principle of ownership of the means of production, by the state or the people


  1. any politicoeconomic doctrine which advocates communal or state ownership, and communal or state control of the means of production and distribution, e.g. COMMUNISM OR SOCIALISM.
  2. any political system in which communal or state ownership and control of the means of production and distribution is the dominant mode of economic organization. Actual forms of organization under collectivism vary widely. Thus, in some contexts, collectivism may involve a large measure of collective self-management.



a feature of socialist and communist social relations and a principle of communist morality that reveals the essence of the relationship between an individual and the society as a whole, the personality and the collective. Collectivism is the opposite of individualism. Historically, as a moral principle it originates even under the conditions of bourgeois society, within the working-class milieu, in the united actions of proletarians against the power of capital. Only in socialist society, however, does collectivism become a universal principle of relations between people in all spheres of social life, a prime requirement of personal moral conduct.

The social basis of socialist collectivism is public ownership of the means of production, which eliminates the exploitation of one person by another. Collectivism presupposes relations between society and the individual such that the development of society as a whole creates favorable conditions for the all-around development of the individual, and the development of the individual is the precondition for the progress of all of society. The main requirements that follow from the principle of collectivism in relations between people are comradely mutual assistance, the conscious acceptance and performance of one’s duty to society, the disciplined combining of social interests with those of the individual, and respect for the collective and its interests. The principle of collectivism presupposes a high degree of personal responsibility on the individual’s part: each person must answer not only for his or her own behavior and life-style but also for the fate of the collective and ultimately for the fate of society.

The program of the CPSU has as one of its aims the strengthening of collectivist tendencies in all spheres of life. The moral code of the builders of communism includes the very important principle: “collectivism and comradely mutual assistance; all for one and one for all.”

“Joint planned labor by the members of society, their daily participation in the management of state and public affairs, and the development of communist relations of comradely cooperation and mutual support result in the transformation of people’s consciousness along the lines of collectivism, industriousness, and humanism” (Programma KPSS, 1972, p. 117).

References in periodicals archive ?
H1b: The use of individual reviews (triggering a quality-motivated bandwagon) is expected to be more prevalent among individuals with individualistic cultural orientations, whereas the use of aggregate user information, which represents more focused information (triggering a quantity-motivated bandwagon) is expected to be more prevalent among individuals from collectivistic cultures.
These results are also supported by evidence from facial expression literature (86,87), illustrating that individuals with collectivistic backgrounds tend to control (e.
In our fieldwork, we further found, also consistent with prior literature (Oyserman, Coon, & Kemmelmeier, 2002), that the rural region is more collectivistic.
Sometimes collectivistic managers have innovative ideas and seek some desired changes in the organizations but due to conformity with others they are unable to implement them and they may feel less satisfied whereas individualistic managers may feel easy to implement innovative ideas necessary for the business's existence and growth.
Persons in individualistic cultures are more likely to share private information and discuss controversial topics, while those from collectivistic cultures tend to build a tighter network with whom they interact with often [11].
Therefore, individuals in collectivistic sociocultural structures think and behave through the prism of collectivist ideals.
Collectivistic societies are characterized by the belief in the superiority of group or collective efforts over individual undertakings (Hofstede, 1980, 1991).
So, Spain is a collectivistic country that represents a new ground to study the validity of the PANAS.
As a result, in collectivistic cultures, when troubles arise, associated stress may be assessed in a different way than in individualistic cultures.
In terms of social characteristics, the first pathway is often referred to as collectivistic and it is traditionally valued in Asia, Africa and Latin America, whereas the second pathway is often referred to as individualistic and is traditionally valued in the United States of America, Canada, Northern Europe and Australia (Greenfield & Cocking, 1994; Hofstede, 2001 cited in Greenfield, 2008).
As a component of a larger cross-cultural study, structured completely in accordance with Toomey's' "culture-based situational model" (2001), in this paper we aimed to verify and to analyze core concepts of Toomey's FNT (Ting-Toomey and Kurogi, 1998) along with one of the theory assumptions in order to depict homogenous versus heterogeneous communication practices among two collectivistic cultural groups.