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A substance added to another to strengthen or otherwise alter it for the purpose of improving the performance of the finished product.
Pertaining to addition.
That property of a process in which increments of the dependent variable are independent for nonoverlapping intervals of the independent variable.



in metallurgy, a material introduced into a liquid metal to change the composition and properties of the metal or slag. A distinction is made among slag-forming additives (lime, fluorspar, and bauxite and their combinations or substituents), carbonizing additives (ground coke, cast iron, and metal carbides), oxidizing additives (ores, clinker, and metal oxides), and alloying additives (ferroalloys, hardeners, and industrial-grade chemical elements). Additives are introduced into the melting unit, ladle, or casting mold.



in petrochemistry, a substance that is added in small amounts to fuels and industrial oils to improve their working properties. Liquid fuels and oils usually do not contain more than a few hundredths or tenths of a percent additives by weight, and only certain additives are used in concentrations of about 1-2 percent or greater.

Additives in fuels improve the efficiency of combustion processes, storage life, and the ability of a fuel to maintain its original properties during shipment and use. They also reduce the harmful effects of fuels on machinery and improve performance at low temperatures. The most common additives are antiknocks, for example, tetraethyllead, which reduce detonation of engine fuels. Other widely used additives act as antioxidants (para-oxydiphenylamine and naphthol), chemical inhibitors, modifiers, metal deactivators, stabilizers, and antifouling agents.

Additives for petroleum oils and synthetic oils are classified on the basis of their use. High-viscosity additives increase the viscosity and improve the viscothermal properties of oils, while pour-point depressants lower the pour point of oils. Antioxidants protect an oil from oxidation by atmospheric oxygen; anticorrosives reduce the decay of a metal in aggressive mediums; and antiwear and antiscuff agents improve the lubricating properties of oils. Antifoaming agents reduce foam, detergents prevent deposition of solids on mechanical parts, and multipurpose additives simultaneously improve several working properties of oils. Also used as additives for oils are various hydrocarbons and compounds that consist of organic molecules and certain elements, including low-molecular surfactants and polymers.


Nefteprodukty: Svoistva, kachestvo, primenenie. Spravochnik Edited by B. V. Losikov. Moscow, 1966.
Kuliev, A. M. Khimiia i tekhnologiia prisadok k maslam i toplivam. Moscow, 1972.



A material, used in very small quantity, to modify a specific property of another material or otherwise improve its characteristics; used in paints, plasters, mortars, etc.


A function f : X -> Y is additive if

for all Z <= X f (lub Z) = lub { f z : z in Z }

(f "preserves lubs"). All additive functions defined over cpos are continuous.

("<=" is written in LaTeX as \subseteq, "lub" as \sqcup ).
References in periodicals archive ?
Both the Food Additives Amendment and the Color Additive Amendments include a provision which prohibits the approval of an additive if it is found to cause cancer in humans or animals.
Events to date suggest citizen action may prove one of the most effective means of oversight: Anyone can petition the FDA with concerns about a GRAS substance, color additive, or food additive.
Presumably, a substance approved as a food or color additive or GRAS, for a specific physical or technical effect, must be employed in the dietary supplement for the same specific physical or technical effect as used in food and at the same level of use.
Also called al-kahl, kajal or surma, this color additive has been linked to lead poisoning in children and is not approved for cosmetic use in the U.
Martin, Senior Advisor for Food and Color Additive Safety,
ZSK corotating intermeshing twinscrew extruders in MEGAcompounder or MEGAvolume design for compounding polyolefins, engineering resins, color additive masterbatches, and blending reinforced plastics.
FDA has amended its color additive regulations to provide for the safe use of LycoMato tomato lycopene extract as a color additive in foods.
For instance, zinc oxide is also used as a color additive in cosmetics, and lead acetate appears in Grecian Formula, a hair coloring product.
Cyanotech Corporation (Nasdaq NMS:CYAN), the world leader in producing high-value, natural products from microalgae, today announced that the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved the use of NatuRose(R) natural astaxanthin from Haematococcus algae as a color additive in the feed of salmon and trout to enhance the color of their flesh.
If used as a color additive, subject to a listing that, by the terms of that listing, includes the use in a dietary supplement, or
ZSK corotating intermeshing twin-screw extruders in MEGAcompounder or MEGAvolume design for compounding polyolefins, engineering resins, color additive masterbatches, and blending reinforced plastics.
It contains a color additive which is unsafe (except for hair dyes).