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kingdom,in taxonomy: see classificationclassification,
in biology, the systematic categorization of organisms into a coherent scheme. The original purpose of biological classification, or systematics, was to organize the vast number of known plants and animals into categories that could be named, remembered, and
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one of the highest taxonomic categories in the system of the organic world. Since the time of Aristotle, all living organisms have conventionally been divided into two kingdoms: the plant kingdom and the animal kingdom.
A new classification system has been widely accepted since the mid-20th century. All organisms lacking a true cell nucleus make up the kingdom, or according to some biologists, the superkingdom Prokaryota. Organisms with a true nucleus are classified in the kingdom or superkingdom Eukaryota. There are four kingdoms, if both Prokaryota and Eukaryota are to be regarded as superkingdoms. Prokaryotes include the single kingdom Schizophyta, which has two subkingdoms—bacteria and blue-green algae. Eukaryotes include the plant kingdom, with its two subkingdoms of lower plants and higher plants; the fungi kingdom, with its two subkingdoms of lower fungi and higher fungi; and the animal kingdom, with its two subkingdoms of protozoans and multicellular animals. This classification system is substantiated from an evolutionary point of view.
In floristic regionalization, the floristic kingdom, or region, is the highest category.
(according to Roman tradition, 753–509 B.C.), the designation accepted in historical literature for the early period in the history of Rome. During this period Rome was ruled consecutively by seven kings: Romulus, Numa Pompilius, Tullus Hostilius, Ancus Martius, Tarquinius Priscus, Servius Tullius, and Tarquinius Superbus. The last king was exiled by the Romans in 509 B.C., after which the republican form of government was established.