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(artificial intelligence, information science)
The objects, concepts and relationships that are assumed to exist in some area of interest. A collection of knowledge, represented using some knowledge representation language is known as a knowledge base and a program for extending and/or querying a knowledge base is a knowledge-based system.

Knowledge differs from data or information in that new knowledge may be created from existing knowledge using logical inference. If information is data plus meaning then knowledge is information plus processing.

A common form of knowledge, e.g. in a Prolog program, is a collection of facts and rules about some subject.

For example, a knowledge base about a family might contain the facts that John is David's son and Tom is John's son and the rule that the son of someone's son is their grandson. From this knowledge it could infer the new fact that Tom is David's grandson.

See also Knowledge Level.



the result of cognition of reality verified in practice; the true reflection of reality in the consciousness of man.

Knowledge is the opposite of ignorance, the absence of verified information about something. Elementary knowledge resulting from biological regularities is characteristic of animals as well, for whom it serves as a necessary condition for the vital activity of the organism and for the realization of its behavioral activity. Knowledge may be everyday, prescientific, artistic, or scientific; scientific knowledge is subdivided into empirical and theoretical. As a rule, everyday knowledge is limited to the statement and description of facts. Scientific knowledge ascends to the level of explanation of facts and their comprehension in a system of concepts of a given science; it is included within a theory. The essence of scientific knowledge consists in understanding reality in its past, present, and future; in reliably generalizing from facts; in dis-covering necessary and regular laws behind random occurrences and general patterns behind singular events; and on such a basis, in foreseeing phenomena. Human thought is constantly advancing from ignorance to knowledge, from superficial to increasingly more profound and comprehensive knowledge.


References in periodicals archive ?
For despite the number of high-profile food-loving men, from Jamie Oliver to Heston Blumenthal, the rump of British manhood remains way behind the female population when it comes to knowledge about food.
As for the school, well, let's just say it lags far behind the stakes race when it comes to knowledge of Belmont.
Motorists in South Wales are thankfully a bit more savvy than most when it comes to knowledge of the road.
As the table above shows, being told is less effective than actually experiencing something when it comes to knowledge retention.
I feel I can offer a lot when it comes to knowledge and the way I think we should play the game.
Was it something they have against the popular British number two whose latest claim is that he can hold his own against practically anybody when it comes to knowledge about 007 James Bond?
When it comes to knowledge of how often Thorough Examination is needed for different trucks, applications and attachments, and when the first examination should take place, many users are equally vague.
One thing is certain: when it comes to knowledge and love of brass bands the people around Huddersfield don't come bottom of the class.
Sue Lord argues that 'when it comes to knowledge about the effectiveness of physiotherapy interventions it's good to have both feet on the ground', my response would be to ask 'whose ground?