Commendation

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Commendation

 

(1) In ancient Rome the right assumed by Julius Caesar and subsequently by Augustus and his successors to recommend to the Senate their own candidates for the remaining republican offices.

(2) In Western Europe in the early medieval period, an agreement sealing the act of giving oneself over to the protection of another, “stronger” person, who became patron of the former (the commended). The institution of commendation, which established relations of personal dependency of the commended with respect to the patron, formalized various underlying relationships. One type of commendation was the act of a vassal acknowledging his subordination to the power of the seignior, which was followed by an oath of fidelity and the granting of a benefice or fief to the vassal. A commendation of this type formalized the relationship of vassalage within the ruling class then taking shape.

A second form of commendation was that of impoverished free individuals to a large landowner. In this arrangement, a “weak” person gave himself over to the protection of a “stronger,” richer person and accepted not only personal dependence but frequently also material dependence: in many cases, the commended person was entrusted with land belonging to the patron. Such commendation was the legal formalization of a peasant’s dependence on a feudal landowner.

References in classic literature ?
Nevertheless," said the traveller, "if I remember rightly, I think I have read that Don Galaor, the brother of the valiant Amadis of Gaul, never had any special lady to whom he might commend himself, and yet he was not the less esteemed, and was a very stout and famous knight.
IMSA Executive Director Brian Atchinson said, "We commend Commissioner Montemayor for encouraging life insurance companies to join best practices organizations such as IMSA, the leader in setting ethical standards for the life and long-term care insurance and annuities product industry.
Commend, a worldwide leader and supplier of security and communication systems, and Genetec , a top provider of unified IP security solutions, declared a strategic technology collaboration.
A A A "In our capacity as Supreme Commander and Chief of Staff of the Royal Armed Forces, we wish to commend the honourable efforts and noble actions that you have made to defend the territorial integrity of the country and its sacred values with determination and courage," the Sovereign said in the Order of the Day on the occasion of the 54th anniversary of the Royal Armed Forces.
I commend Peter Ackroyd's book, Albion--the origins of the English imagination, to all those who love the English.
AMONG APPROVED resolutions from the Faith, Worship and Ministry Committee was a motion to commend for widespread distribution the HIV/AIDS document from the Council of the Anglican Provinces in Africa and the Anglican primates meeting in Canterbury oil HIV/AIDS.
We commend all involved--an impressive amount of money donated in less than 30 minutes.
I sincerely appreciate their efforts and commend them for their work.