Regardless of the microbial source, the feeding of crude antimicrobial preparations to animals is plausible as a delivery process for transferring the cognate antimicrobial resistance genes between producing strains and the commensal
bacteria of animals (21); the concomitant selection for resistance would ensure the survival of rare resistant strains.
In healthy adults, the amount of diversity seen in skin commensal
bacteria is staggering," say James A.
Gluchowski 2005); parasitic or commensal
organisms positioned over the anal vent or between the arms of crinoids (e.
However, when some of the mice were intestinally colonized with segmented filamentous bacteria--common commensal
inhabitants of the mouse gut--they developed the disease upon being immunized with the central nervous system antigens.
Three patterns of spatial distribution for oyster reef commensals
were apparent (Table 3).
In separate experiments, the team sought to determine if the presence or absence of commensals
in the gut played a role in skin immunity.
israelii is a common commensal
of gastrointestinal flora.
As researchers learn more about the skin microbiome, they may find ways to use beneficial commensals
to heal skin conditions.
Now, David Artis, PhD, associate professor of Microbiology, along with postdoctoral fellow David Hill, PhD, from the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, and collaborators from The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and institutions in Japan and Germany, have found that these commensal
bacteria might play an important role in influencing and controlling allergic inflammation.
abbreviata should be considered as a commensal
rather than a parasitic relationship.
Supplies of food for catering high school and commensals
approximately 180,000 meals on 180 days a year.
These results show that these bacteria, also called commensals
, compete with pathogens (disease-causing bacteria) in a previously unappreciated way - and that the pathogens use a specific set of genes to temporarily outcompete commensals
before leaving the body.