communicable diseases


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communicable diseases,

illnesses caused by microorganisms and transmitted from an infected person or animal to another person or animal. Some diseases are passed on by direct or indirect contact with infected persons or with their excretions. Most diseases are spread through contact or close proximity because the causative bacteria or viruses are airborne; i.e., they can be expelled from the nose and mouth of the infected person and inhaled by anyone in the vicinity. Such diseases include diphtheria, scarlet fever, measles, mumps, whooping cough, influenza, and smallpox. Some infectious diseases can be spread only indirectly, usually through contaminated food or water, e.g., typhoid, cholera, dysentery. Still other infections are introduced into the body by animal or insect carriers, e.g., rabies, malaria, encephalitis, Rocky Mountain spotted fever. The human disease carriers, i.e., the healthy persons who may be immune to the organisms they harbor, are also a source of transmission. Some infective organisms require specific circumstances for their transmission, e.g., sexual contact in syphilis and gonorrhea, injury in the presence of infected soil or dirt in tetanus, infected tranfusion blood or medical instruments in serum hepatitis and sometimes in malaria. In the case of AIDS, while a number of different circumstances will transmit the disease, each requires the introduction of a contaminant into the bloodstream. A disease such as tuberculosis may be transmitted in several ways—by contact (human or animal), through food or eating utensils, and by the air. Control of communicable disease depends upon recognition of the many ways transmission takes place. It must include isolation or even quarantine of persons with certain diseases. Proper antisepsis (see antisepticantiseptic,
agent that kills or inhibits the growth of microorganisms on the external surfaces of the body. Antiseptics should generally be distinguished from drugs such as antibiotics that destroy microorganisms internally, and from disinfectants, which destroy microorganisms
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) should be observed in illness and in health. Immunologic measures (see immunityimmunity,
ability of an organism to resist disease by identifying and destroying foreign substances or organisms. Although all animals have some immune capabilities, little is known about nonmammalian immunity.
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) should be utilized fully. Some sexually transmitted infections are associated with cancer (cervical or penile). Education of the population in rules of public health is of great importance both in the matter of personal responsibility (disposal of secretions, preventing contact with the blood of others, proper handling and preparation of food, personal hygiene) and community responsibility (safe water and food supply, sterile blood supply, garbage and waste disposal). Animal and insect carriers must be controlled, and the activities of human carriers must be limited.
References in periodicals archive ?
In addition, for more effective prevention against the spread of communicable diseases in the campus, schools should assign designated staff or a crisis management team to coordinate and oversee matters relating to the hygienic conditions of the school environment and to brief students/staff and parents on the relevant preventive measures.
Travelers are also advised to take the necessary clothing to avoid communicable diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, Dengue fever, and the Zika virus being transmitted through mosquito stings.
Only 18 discussed FEL in relation to non communicable diseases and were thus included in the review.
The Control of Communicable Diseases Manual (CCDM) is revised and republished every several years to provide the most current information and recommendations for communicable-disease prevention.
The Wisconsin Public Health Association has joined forces with the Wisconsin Association of Local Health Departments and Boards to support communicable disease funding in the state.
They said communicable diseases are easily transmitted by use of unsafe water for drinking and sanitary purposes and deteriorated health conditions of the affected population.
The UAE council of ministers has issued resolution No (33) for 2016 regarding the executive bylaw of the federal law No (14) for 2014 on fighting the communicable diseases, which will take effect in six months, after being published in the official gazette.
He said the health personnel on site for the control of outbreak of communicable diseases should know how to carry out primary investigation and then on the basis of that investigation confirm the presence of pathogens and then with the treatment and prevention procedures.
The study confirms that our health systems are stressed with a dual burden of disease with communicable diseases (51.
INDIA is hosting the fifth meeting of the SAARC health ministers in New Delhi on April 8 to deliberate on key issues including HIV/ AIDS, prevention of communicable and non- communicable diseases, besides strengthening collaborations among the nations.
Damascus, SANA -- Health Minister Nizar Yazigi stressed the need to coordinate efforts in terms of contagious and communicable diseases warning program, response, and precautionary steps, particularly during winter.

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