competence


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Related to competence: capability, competence and performance

competence

1. Law the state of being legally competent or qualified
2. Embryol the ability of embryonic tissues to react to external conditions in a way that influences subsequent development

competence

(especially ETHNOMETHODOLOGY, and by analogy with linguistic competence -see COMPETENCE AND PERFORMANCE) the fundamental capacities (TACIT KNOWLEDGE, etc.) displayed by social actors as 'S killed’ participants (‘members’) in social contexts. See also SACKS.

Competence

 

(1) In immunology, the capacity of the human body or that of any warm-blooded animal for specific immune response (mainly antibody formation), which may be achieved by the collaboration of cells of several categories—principally the immunocompetent (antigen-sensitive and antigen-reactive) lymphoid cells. These cells “recognize” antigen, since even before encountering it they bear a special receptor or synthesize small amounts of immunoglobulins.

In rats and mice, before immunization, approximately one in 5,000 lymphoid cells of the spleen and blood binds a particular antigen—that is, the cell is immunocompetent for that antigen. After stimulation by antigen, immunocompetent cells are transformed into either the precursors of plasma cells, which secrete various immunoglobulins, or sensitized lymphocytes, which are the bearers of structural antibodies. Clones of immunocompetent cells, or X cells, apparently originate from the polypotential stem cells, or S cells (the precursors of all hemopoietic and lymphoid cells), probably under the influence of the hormone of the thymus. In the X cells, the genes that control synthesis of the heavy and light chains of immunoglobulins are probably successively activated and repressed upon encountering antigen. The descendants of X cells are capable of synthesizing antibodies according to an already selected program.

REFERENCE

Fridenshtein, A. Ia., and I. L. Chertkov. Kletochnye osnovy immuni-teta. Moscow, 1969.
A. N. MATS
(2) In embryology, the ability of the cells of animal or plant embryos to react to external influence by the formation of appropriate structures or by differentiation. Competence arises during particular stages of the organism’s development and lasts only a limited time. In the absence of the appropriate influences, the unrealized competence is lost and replaced by a new competence that leads to the formation of organs that will develop later.

T. A. DETLAF


Competence

 

the aggregate of powers (rights and obligations) of some body or official person, as established by the law, the bylaws of the particular body, or other statutes. The competence of judicial bodies is ordinarily determined by law. In the USSR the competence of judicial bodies is determined by the Constitution of the USSR, the constitutions of the Union and autonomous republics, the Statute on the Supreme Court of the USSR of 1957, the Statute on Military Tribunals of 1958, USSR and republic legislation on judicial organization, and criminal procedure and civil procedure legislation.

competence

[′käm·pəd·əns]
(embryology)
The ability of a reacting system to respond to the inductive stimulus during early developmental stages.
(geology)
The ability of the wind to transport solid particles either by rolling, suspension, or saltation (intermittent rolling and suspension); usually expressed in terms of the weight of a single particle.
(hydrology)
The ability of a stream, flowing at a given velocity, to move the largest particles.
(mining engineering)
A property of rock strata which possess sufficient strength to span a mine opening without failure.
References in classic literature ?
YOUR competence and MY wealth are very much alike, I dare say; and without them, as the world goes now, we shall both agree that every kind of external comfort must be wanting.
When I remarked on her competence, she told me with that pleasant little smile of hers that for a while she had worked in a hospital.
Warren, and having made a competence she now lived the quiet life of the bourgeoise.
Hirst brought chairs, and tea began again, Susan pouring cascades of water from pot to pot, always cheerfully, and with the competence of long use.
Casaubon had been slow and hesitating, oppressed in the plan of transmitting his work, as he had been in executing it, by the sense of moving heavily in a dim and clogging medium: distrust of Dorothea's competence to arrange what he had prepared was subdued only by distrust of any other redactor.
I had half a mind to save my dignity by telling him that if it was my seamanship he was alluding to I wanted him to understand that a fellow who had survived being turned inside out for an hour and a half by Captain R- was equal to any demand his old ship was likely to make on his competence.
I had never heard of your existence; but I had known your father; and from matters in my competence (to be touched upon hereafter) I was disposed to fear the worst.
With the small competence he possessed, eked out by such employment as he could pick up, he travelled from town to town through the United States in quest of his enemies.
Excellent men, who had been forced all their lives to spell on an impromptu-phonetic system, and having carried on a successful business in spite of this disadvantage, had acquired money enough to give their sons a better start in life than they had had themselves, must necessarily take their chance as to the conscience and the competence of the schoolmaster whose circular fell in their way, and appeared to promise so much more than they would ever have thought of asking for, including the return of linen, fork, and spoon.
The researchers suggest that "It would be interesting to examine the significant social contextual correlates of perfectionistic tendencies among youngsters who vary in their competence and/or investment in different achievement settings" (p.
17, 2015 /PRNewswire/ -- In order to strengthen the global competence of its business students, the University of Pittsburgh's Joseph M.
NZNO'S COMPETENCE review adviser Pauline Cook believes the Nursing Council's new competence assessment process, which uses actors in clinical scenarios, is a big improvement on how nurses' competence has been assessed.