hysterectomy

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hysterectomy

(hĭstərĕk`təmē), surgical removal of the uterusuterus,
in most female mammals, hollow muscular organ in which the fetus develops and from which it is delivered at the end of pregnancy. The human uterus is pear-shaped and about 3 in. (7.
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. A hysterectomy may involve removal of the uterus only or additional removal of the cervix (base of the uterus), fallopian tubesfallopian tube
, either of a pair of tubes extending from the uterus to the paired ovaries in the human female, also called oviducts, technically known as the uterine tube.
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 (salpingectomy), and ovariesovary,
ductless gland of the female in which the ova (female reproductive cells) are produced. In vertebrate animals the ovary also secretes the sex hormones estrogen and progesterone, which control the development of the sexual organs and the secondary sexual characteristics.
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 (oophorectomy). It may be performed through a conventional abdominal incision or through the vagina. It is performed in cases of malignant tumors, endometriosis, prolapsed uterus, or fibroids that cause bleeding and pain. An emergency hysterectomy is sometimes necessary to end uterine hemorrhaging.

Removal does not physically interfere with sexual activity, but it does eliminate the uterine contractions of orgasm. It also eliminates the possibility of childbearing and precipitates menopausemenopause
or climacteric
, transitional phase in a woman's life when the ovaries stop releasing eggs, ovarian production of estrogen and other hormones tapers off, and menstruation ceases.
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 in premenopausal women. Surgical removal of the ovaries eliminates their production of estrogenestrogen
, any one of a group of hormones synthesized by the reproductive organs and adrenal glands in females and, in lesser quantities, in males. The estrogens cause the thickening of the lining of the uterus and vagina in the early phase of the ovulatory, or menstrual, cycle
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 and progesteroneprogesterone
, female sex hormone that induces secretory changes in the lining of the uterus essential for successful implantation of a fertilized egg. A steroid, progesterone is secreted chiefly by the corpus luteum, a group of cells formed in the ovary after the follicle
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 along with these hormones's protective benefits to the heart, bones, and skin.

Some women's health advocates have questioned what they feel is the overuse of hysterectomy in the United States, where it is the second most common surgical procedure. Some studies have judged that up to 25% of hysterectomies performed in the United States are unnecessary and that more conservative treatments (laparoscopic surgery, hormone therapy, or simple removal of fibroids) would suffice in these cases.

hysterectomy

[‚his·tə′rek·tə·mē]
(medicine)
Surgical removal of all or part of the uterus.

hysterectomy

surgical removal of the uterus
References in periodicals archive ?
3 Here we present a case report of secondary vaginal cancer after complete hysterectomy due to myoma which was complicated by low-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN I) and human papilloma virus (HPV) infection.
The medical advice was to basically have an abortion, have a complete hysterectomy as soon as possible, and start chemotherapy if it was needed," said Becky, now cancer free and smiling as she watches Chris hold and talk to Katie.
According to her medical history, she had been diagnosed with carcinoma in situ of the cervix 9 years earlier, and she had undergone a complete hysterectomy with oophorectomy at that time.
Studies indicate that 44%-55% of women who have undergone complete hysterectomy for benign disease have had a Pap smear with in the previous 3 years.
Nonetheless, her doctor recommended a complete hysterectomy, the removal of her uterus in addition to her cervix, "Just to be safe.
The MD (an oncologist) who made the original diagnosis (which had been confirmed) told her that she had two choices: 1) have a complete hysterectomy right now, or 2) have a conization (removing the cancerous cervix cells) now and then a complete hysterectomy in 6 weeks.
The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines recommend complete hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and additional procedures based on preoperative and intraoperative findings.

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