It decreases rapidly in the juvenile wood portion and remains more or less stable in the mature wood portion, unless compression wood
After tilting, conifers normally start to form a specialized wood at the lower side of an inclined trunk, so-called compression wood
T 267 cm-05 Compression wood
identification in pulpwood
Effect of compression wood
on leaching and fixation of CCA-C treated red pine.
In addition, there are limits on potential decay associated with knots, shake, splits, and compression wood
and spiral grain are also more prevalent in juvenile wood than in mature wood and contribute to excessive longitudinal shrinkage.
The variables analyzed were: the amount of compression wood
produced, ovendry specific gravity (SG), modulus of rupture, and modulus of elasticity (MOE).
These trees tend to have relatively high percentages of juvenile wood and compression wood
For the AAA grade, the tonewood board must contain no more than 85 percent quartersawn material, no defects, minimal spiral grain, fairly even grain lines, almost all white color, good stiffness, and no compression wood
2: Permanent set of compression wood
by low molecular weight phenolic resin and some physical properties of the products.
For example, compression wood
forms on the lower side of a leaning tree trunk or branches of softwoods, while tension wood forms on the upper side of the leaning trunk and branches of hardwoods (Panshin et al.
Laboratory measurements were performed on sample discs at the before-mentioned heights from all sample trees for diameters, bark thickness, cross-sectional geometry, pith eccentricity, and extent of heartwood and compression wood
, and on sample whorls (over-healed, self-pruned, and un-pruned) closest to the before-mentioned wood samples for the diameters and quality of knots at fixed radial locations (on the surface under bark and at consecutive 3-cm distances perpendicular to the stem axis).