# compression

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Related to compressional: Compressional wave, Compressional strength

## compression,

external stress applied to an object or substance, tending to cause a decrease in volume (see pressurepressure,
in mechanics, ratio of the force acting on a surface to the area of the surface; it is thus distinct from the total force acting on a surface. A force can be applied to and sustained by a single point on a solid.
). Gases can be compressed easily, solids and liquids to a very small degree if at all. Water, for example, is practically incompressible, thus making it especially useful for hydraulic machineshydraulic machine,
machine that derives its power from the motion or pressure of water or some other liquid. Hydraulic Engines

Water falling from one level to a lower one is used to drive machines like the water wheel and the turbine.
. According to the kinetic-molecular theory of gaseskinetic-molecular theory of gases,
physical theory that explains the behavior of gases on the basis of the following assumptions: (1) Any gas is composed of a very large number of very tiny particles called molecules; (2) The molecules are very far apart compared to their sizes,
, when the molecules of a gas are brought close enough together by compression, the gas (under certain conditions of temperature) undergoes liquefactionliquefaction,
change of a substance from the solid or the gaseous state to the liquid state. Since the different states of matter correspond to different amounts of energy of the molecules making up the substance, energy in the form of heat must either be supplied to a substance
. This principle is applied commercially to several gases, including liquid oxygen and the so-called bottled gas (a mixture of hydrocarbons) used as a fuel. Boyle's law deals with the decrease in the volume of a gas in relation to the increase of pressure upon it (see gas lawsgas laws,
physical laws describing the behavior of a gas under various conditions of pressure, volume, and temperature. Experimental results indicate that all real gases behave in approximately the same manner, having their volume reduced by about the same proportion of the
). The ability or the degree to which an internal-combustion engine reduces the volume of its fuel mixture preparatory to firing is called its compression. Also, a region of high pressure in a fluid is called a compression; thus sound waves are said to propagate at compressions and rarefactions (regions of low pressure) of their medium, such as air.

## Compression

Direct pushing force, in line with the axis of the member: the opposite of tension.

## Compression

(in Russian, kompressiia), a force effect on a gaseous body that reduces the volume occupied by the gas and increases its pressure and temperature. Compression is achieved by means of compressors and during the operation of internal combustion engines and other equipment.

Russian technical literature usually uses the word szhatie instead of kompressiia, although the meaning of the former is more general, since it also covers solids and volume reduction upon cooling.

## compression

[kəm′presh·ən]
(computer science)
(electronics)
Reduction of the effective gain of a device at one level of signal with respect to the gain at a lower level of signal, so that weak signal components will not be lost in background and strong signals will not overload the system.
(geodesy)
(geology)
A system of forces which tend to decrease the volume or shorten rocks.
(mechanics)
Reduction in the volume of a substance due to pressure; for example in building, the type of stress which causes shortening of the fibers of a wooden member.
(mechanical engineering)

## compression

1. The state of being compressed, or being shortened by a force.
2. The change in length produced in a test specimen by a compressive load.

## flattening

The ratio of the difference between the equatorial radius (major semi-axis) and the polar radius (minor semi-axis) of the earth to the equatorial radius. Also called compression. The flattening of the earth is the ellipticity of the spheroid, and it equals the ellipticity of the ellipse forming a meridianal section of the spheroid. If a and b represent the major and minor semi-axes of the spheroid, respectively, and f is the flattening of the earth, f= (a – b)/a. The magnitude of the flattening is sometimes expressed by stating the numerical value of the reciprocal of the flattening, a/(a – b).

## compression

Engineering an increase in pressure of the charge in an engine or compressor obtained by reducing its volume

## compression

(application)
(Or "compaction") The coding of data to save storage space or transmission time. Although data is already coded in digital form for computer processing, it can often be coded more efficiently (using fewer bits). For example, run-length encoding replaces strings of repeated characters (or other units of data) with a single character and a count. There are many compression algorithms and utilities. Compressed data must be decompressed before it can be used.

The standard Unix compression utilty is called compress though GNU's superior gzip has largely replaced it. Other compression utilties include pack, zip and PKZIP.

When compressing several similar files, it is usually better to join the files together into an archive of some kind (using tar for example) and then compress them, rather than to join together individually compressed files. This is because some common compression algorithms build up tables based on the data from their current input which they have already compressed. They then use this table to compress subsequent data more efficiently.

Compression FAQ.

Web Content Compression FAQ.

Usenet newsgroups: news:comp.compression, news:comp.compression.research.

## compression

(multimedia)
Reducing the dynamic range of an audio signal, making quiet sounds louder and loud sounds quieter. Thus, when discussing digital audio, the preferred term for reducing the total amount of data is "compaction". Some advocate this term in all contexts.
References in periodicals archive ?
To improve compressional resistance of highloft fabrics, a new technology has been developed at the Technical University of Liberec, Czech Republic, which allows the production of fiber batts with predominantly upright positions of fibers.
Geophysical attributes calculated by the algorithm are bulk density, acoustic impedance, reflection coefficient, compressional, and shear wave velocities.
Three fundamental properties influence the rate at which arc magma ascends: i) magma is less dense than the wall rocks and is, therefore, buoyant, ii) a magma with lower viscosity rises with greater ease than a more viscous magma (therefore, mafic magma generally rises more readily than felsic magma, which is likely to be trapped in magma chambers where it cools to form a pluton), and iii) magma rises more rapidly in an extensional environment than in a compressional setting because widening fractures create space for rising magma to exploit.
Table 7 lists the shear stiffness, bending stiffness, and compressional resilience of the present nonwoven fabrics.
Dipping and closed fractures suggest that horizontal compressional stresses were dominating during the formation of joints in Devonian sandstones.
Compressional tectonic boudin lenses with near-horizontal necklines are developed within the transition zone from cataclasite/breccia to fractured/jointed rock.
The uniaxial compressive strength is calculated from bulk density, shear and compressional sonic velocities and gamma ray data.
Nevertheless, the research papers included in this volume exemplify most of the basic tectonic settings, including extensional, intraplate, and compressional.
The Monks Head rocks display a complex history of folding, faulting, and vein emplacement involving interplay of extensional and compressional tectonics.
Internal currents created by the sinking would have formed the coronas by compressing the surface, and the ridges and troughs would represent compressional folds within the coronas.
The in situ ratio of the perturbations in shear velocity and compressional velocity inferred for the lower mantle from GST in 1986 was much higher than determined, at relatively low pressures, in the laboratory.
2D and 3D seismic surveys acquired by Vanco reveal the presence of large compressional folds in a newly recognized sub-basin.

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