Concentrate

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concentrate

[′kän·sən‚trāt]
(chemistry)
To increase the amount of a dissolved substance by evaporation.
(mining engineering)
To separate ore or metal from its containing rock or earth.
The clean product recovered in froth flotation or other methods of mineral separation.

Concentrate

 

(in mining), a product of mineral dressing that is more suitable for use or further processing than the initial raw material. In most cases, direct use of the extracted rock or its metallurgical or chemical processing is economically unfeasible and sometimes even technically impossible. A concentrate may have a high content of a valuable component (such as a metal), a small quantity of impurities (for example, iron and titanium in glass sand), or the required size (graded anthracite).

The quality of concentrates is regulated by government standards or by technical specifications that determine the size and the content of valuable components, undesirable impurities, and moisture. For example, concentrate must contain Pb > 70 percent, SiO2 < 2 percent, Cu < 1.5 percent, Zn < 2.5 percent, and Fe < 8 percent for lead hearth smelting and Pb > 30 percent, Cu < 4 percent, and Zn < 12 percent for shaft smelting.

A distinction is made among preconcentrate (coarse or crude concentrate), which is subjected to further dressing; bulk concentrate, which contains several valuable components; and final concentrate. In most cases, concentrate is a raw material for metallurgical, chemical, and other production processes.

References in periodicals archive ?
Product coverage: Liquid Concentrates, Powder Concentrates.
The carrier resin in concentrates is invariably LLDPE, but the choices differ.
One of the many intriguing things about the grape juice concentrate business is that hardly anybody ever writes or talks about it.
The overviews concentrate on the metal chemistry and metallic mineralogy of the shales and are illustrated by maps showing the aerial extent of the shales and the locations of mines or high metal contents.
Soy protein concentrates, which are composed almost entirely of protein and dietary fiber, can range from 65 percent to 90 percent protein.
If that sounds unappealing, Malkki offers an alternative: Eat breads and other baked goods fortified with a beta-glucan-enriched concentrate.
It also assesses the dynamics of country's foreign trade in molybdenum ores and concentrates in 2002-2010.
LDPE-based foaming-agent concentrates specially designed for thin blown, cast, or coextruded films.
Grape juice concentrate increased in California to approximately 462,000 tons in 1991, accounting for 28% of the San Joaquin Valley crush (Districts 12, 13, 14).
In what follows, this report begins by summarizing the world exporter's market for manganese ores and concentrates including manganiferous iron ores and concentrates with dry-weight manganese content of 20% or more.
Custom color concentrates in all thermoplastics, especially engineering materials.
Zimmerman concentrates his practice in the areas of mergers and acquisitions and other corporate transactions, and as part of that practice, he represents clients in purchases and sales of businesses, private equity investments, contracts and other corporate matters.