concern

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concern

a commercial company or enterprise

Concern

 

one of most developed forms of monopolist associations, characterized by a unity of ownership and control. It is the prevailing form of monopoly in contemporary developed capitalist countries. Member enterprises are subject to the control of the financial magnates heading the concern. Sometimes a special company, the holding company, is set up to act as a managing body of the concern; the holding company will have a controlling interest in many different companies.

Concerns were first founded in Germany after World War I. They developed further with the growth of new forms of production concentration, above all the integration in the ferrous and nonferrous metal industry, the coal and oil processing industries, and the chemical industry. In the 1920’s the concentration and centralization of capital became widespread in the USA. There the process was vertical; that is, it consisted of the combination of successive stages of the production process, from the initial raw materials to various finished products.

After World War II, the concerns, influenced by the scientific-technological revolution and the intensification of uneven economic development and the competitive struggle among the capitalist monopolies, assumed new features: their intersectorial diversification, because of the specific conditions of capital accumulation, became more pronounced; fundamental and applied research grew; and the number of large scientific laboratories and experimental shops and departments increased. After the war, the number of international concerns increased greatly.

The decisive advantages of the concerns in the sharp competitive struggle stem from large-scale integrated production, constant introduction of advanced technology, the output of new types of products, the concentration of patents, the possession of production secrets, the accumulation of know-how, and the development of self-financing.

Bourgeois apologists try to represent the concern as an efficient and progressive organization. However, the activity of a concern clearly shows how technological progress under capitalism enriches small groups of large-scale owners and managers and how the progressive aspects are organically interwoven with economic stagnation.

REFERENCES

Politicheskaia ekonomiia sovremennogo monopolisticheskogo kapitalizma, vol. 1. Moscow, 1970. Chapter 6.
Khmel’nitskaia, E. L. Ocherki sovremennoi monopolii. Moscow, 1971.

IU. B. KOCHEVRIN

References in classic literature ?
Why quarrel with an old man concerning his thoughts?
Giving them reason to believe he was merely employed in a consultation concerning the future route, he spurred his charger, and drew the reins again when the animal had carried him within a few yards of the place where the sullen runner still stood, leaning against the tree.
The common people regarded it with a mixture of respect and superstition, partly out of sympathy for the fate of its ill- starred namesake, and partly from the tales of strange sights, and doleful lamentations, told concerning it.
With equal, nay with greater reason, a body of men are unfit to be both judges and parties at the same time; yet what are many of the most important acts of legislation, but so many judicial determinations, not indeed concerning the rights of single persons, but concerning the rights of large bodies of citizens?
He has stated such matters just as they occurred, and leaves every one to form his own opinion concerning them; trusting that his anxious desire to speak the unvarnished truth will gain for him the confidence of his readers.
But as we drove too rapidly to allow them to answer my repeated Enquiries, I gained little, or indeed, no information concerning him.
From every part of the eastern counties reports were received concerning the enormous immigration of birds.
We shall therefore speak a few words, concerning the unity of the church; what are the fruits thereof ; what the bounds; and what the means.
Concerning the one in question, therefore, I have only to add -- aware that the rules of composition forbid the introduction of a character not connected with my fable -- that this was the very gentleman whose negligent servant left behind him that collection of washing-bills, resulting from a long visit at Northanger, by which my heroine was involved in one of her most alarming adventures.
Upon the whole, the consequences of such a law as this would be directly contrary to those things which good laws ought to establish, and which Socrates endeavoured to establish by his regulations concerning women and children: for we think that friendship is the greatest good which can happen to any city, as nothing so much prevents seditions: and amity in a city is what Socrates commends above all things, which appears to be, as indeed he says, the effect of friendship; as we learn from Aristophanes in the Erotics, who says, that those who love one another from the excess of that passion, desire to breathe the same soul, and from being two to be blended into one: from whence it would necessarily follow, that both or one of them must be destroyed.
In all bargains, whether to fight or to marry, or concerning any other such business, little previous ceremony is required to bring the matter to an issue when both parties are really in earnest.
And another of these diseases is called "the fire-dog": concerning HIM men have greatly deceived themselves, and let themselves be deceived.

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