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1. Brit a reduction in the usual price of a ticket granted to a special group of customers
2. any grant of rights, land, or property by a government, local authority, corporation, or individual
3. US and Canadian
a. the right to maintain a subsidiary business on a lessor's premises
b. the premises so granted or the business so maintained
c. a free rental period for such premises



an agreement granting, under specified terms, rights for the exploitation of natural resources and enterprises belonging to a country or municipality. In capitalist countries, concessionaires are usually large monopolies which use the concession to make monopolistic profits.

In the era of imperialism, international concessions developed extensively, enabling the imperialist powers to ensure raw materials for themselves and to preserve their economic influence in developing countries. Examples of such concessions are the petroleum concessions of imperialist monopolies in the Middle East and North Africa. These concessions, particularly those granted before World War II or in the early postwar years, covered vast areas and were given for long terms. Concessions in Bahrain, Trucial Oman, Qatar, Kuwait, Muscat and Oman cover the entire country. The Bahrain Petroleum Company received a concession for 91 years and the Kuwait Oil Company for 92 years. The concession agreements granted the foreign monopolies the exclusive right of extraction, processing, and marketing of petroleum and guaranteed them the right to build means of transportation, pipelines, ports, and other necessary installations.

In the early 1950’s, with the growth and strengthening of the world socialist system and the upsurge in the liberation movement, the imperialists were forced to agree to increase payments for their concessions in a number of Middle Eastern and North African countries. Previously specified payments were replaced by the principle of an equal division of profits, although the colonial nature of the existing concessions remained unchanged. Since the export of petroleum is the main source of revenue for many Middle Eastern and North African countries, they began to coordinate their efforts to gain more advantageous terms for the concessions they granted.

In 1960 the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) was formed to work out a uniform policy aimed at changing the unequal terms of concession agreements, increasing petroleum revenues, and developing national petroleum industries. OPEC launched an offensive against the oil monopolies and achieved significant success. By 1973 OPEC was making decisions that hitherto had been made exclusively by foreign monopolies, particularly those concerning prices and the distribution of profits from the extraction of crude oil between the producing countries and the monopolies.

The concessions that existed in the USSR in the period of transition from capitalism to socialism were fundamentally different economically and politically. The decree of Nov. 23, 1920, permitted the granting of concessions in order to attract foreign capital into industries and regions that the Soviet government was unable to develop at the time. V. I. Lenin thus described the aim of these concessions: “We make sacrifices giving to the foreign capitalists millions of the most valuable materials … , but at the same time we must get the advantages we need, that is, an increase in production volume and, if possible, the improvement of the condition of our workers, both those employed in concession enterprises and those not employed by them” (Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 43, p. 190). Under the dictatorship of the proletariat, concessions were used only to the extent that they could be useful for the development of the national economy, and they did not in the least affect the economic independence of the USSR. Concessions in the USSR played an auxiliary role in economic construction and were not extensive. By 1937 all concession agreements were canceled with the con-sent of the concessionaires.


Lenin, V. I. “Zakliuchitel’noe slovo po dokladu o kontsessiakh.” Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 42.
Lenin, V. I. Ibid., pp. 118–24, 126–27.
Lenin, V. I. “Doklad o kontsessiakh.” Ibid., vol. 43.
Lenin, V. I. “Russkoi kolonii v Severnoi Amerike.” Ibid., vol. 45.
Lenin, V. I. A. P. Serebrovskomu. (Letter.) Ibid., vol. 52.
Lenin, V. I. “Telegramma kraevomu ekonomicheskomu soveshchaniu lugo-Vostoka.” Ibid., vol. 54.
Lenin, V. . Armandu Hammeru. (Letter.) Ibid., vol. 54.
Lenin, V. I. I. V. Stalinu dlia chlenov Politbiuro TsK RKP (b). (Letter.) Ibid.
Andreasian, R. N., and A. Ia. El’ianov. Blizhnii Vostok, neft’ i nezavisi-most’. Moscow, 1961.
Levin, A. Ia. Sotsial’no-ekonomicheskie uklady v SSSR v period perekhoda ot kapitalizma k sotsializmu. Moscow, 1967.
Mikdashi, Z. A Financial Analysis of Middle Eastern Oil Concessions 1905–1965. New York [1966].



i. Permission allowed by a designated authority to operate an aircraft even when there is some shortfall in terms of serviceability of some system.
ii. Permission granted for continued use of a component for a specific period of time when it is due for servicing or replacement. This is also applicable to servicing of the complete aircraft.
References in periodicals archive ?
NJASAP has made clear a concessionary agreement will not be accepted by the pilot group -- especially as NetJets continues to report significantly increased revenues, aggressive debt reduction, multi-billion dollar aircraft deliveries and expansion into China.
The Welsh government was warned by the bus operators that the impact of a PS24m cut in funding for the concessionary bus travel will result in service cuts and job losses, but clearly have not listened.
At this time the concessionary fuel beneficiaries do not need to take any action to pursue their claim and we will be writing with details of their potential claim in due course.
Under the National Concessionary Fuel Scheme, long-serving miners were given free coal for life dependent on their age and length of service as part of contractual agreements.
Block ticket discounts are available at PS210 for 10 full tickets and PS180 for 10 concessionary tickets.
If you take free personal nursing care and the national concessionary travel scheme, the free bus passes.
Concessionary fares will also continue on the Borderlands and Conwy Valley lines for pass holders in Conwy, Flintshire and Wrexham until September 30, 2013.
Shadow transport secretary Maria Eagle said: "The Government has made great play of keeping concessionary passes.
It was established in 1971, to help financing development projects in developing countries by providing concessionary loans and other forms of financial assistance.
But AFA told the appeals court that NWA's imposition of cuts despite flight attendants' rejection of two tentative concessionary agreements gives workers the right to work actions.
The negotiating committee for Mesaba Airlines flight attendants, represented by the Association of Flight Attendants-CWA (AFA-CWA), has reached a tentative concessionary agreement with the airline's management.
This offer cannot be used in conjunction with any other promotion or concessionary offer, family ticket or any other ticket and there is no cash alternative.