is usually understood as a strategy of 'reinforcement by reward' (15).
As has already been said, the claim against the Commission acting in concert with the ECB, the institution in control of the money supply to Cyprus, is that they were in an impossibly powerful negotiating position -- power asymmetrical in the jargon -- and able to dictate the conditionality
absolutely whereas the Commission's proper role was to ensure compliance with EU law including human rights law and the rule of law.
This may also explain why accession conditionality
has been found most effective when the EU decided whether to open accession negotiations (Houghton 2007; Saatcioglu 2010; Mungiu-Pippidi 2014).
Again, some disabled people will have conditionality
attached to their benefits regime.
6) The process depends on credible conditionality
from the EU.
helps investors improve investment scenario analysis by better organizing the qualitative evidence collected in file folders, by using that evidence to better support the qualitative judgments, now written in a Word memo, and by using the judgments to automatically drive more scenarios than they create manually in Excel.
has been an important foreign-policy tool of the EU and is occupying the minds of many academics.
The conclusion was that prior to 1999, the conditionality
mechanism did not automatically offer accession at the end of the process, but after this date, the achievement of this outcome became the norm.
in benefits has to some extent always existed, particularly through provisions for the withdrawal of benefits for claimants refusing a suitable lob offer (Bryson and Jacobs, 1992; Gregg, 2008), its use has been increased and intensified both in the UK and internationally (Griggs and Bennett, 2009).
However, there is a risk that the conditionality
and sanction provisions in the bill might in some circumstances lead to destitution, such as would amount to inhuman or degrading treatment contrary to Article 3 ECHR if the individual concerned was genuinely incapable of work.
The pre-accession conditionality
method was inaugurated in 1993 with the adoption of the so-called Copenhagen Criteria as a response to the application for membership by the Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs), which were facing great challenges to conform their societies to European standards.
The stories come from Mexico, South Africa, and Namibia, and tell of such matters as cash transfers today, eating more and better, turning a dollar grant into two-dollar income, identifying recipients, the conditionality
dilemma, and the way forward.