Discernment" was the prevailing theme in the pope's message to the confessors
during the seminar:
In the past, only a bishop or a designated chief confessor
of a diocese could grant absolution for an abortion.
He was one of the confessors
of the novices, homilist and a spiritual guide.
In the seventy-second tale, a group of nuns was present to console a dying man, but the fact that as women, they were unable to serve as confessors
necessitated that they request a male cleric come to perform this duty.
A priest can be a confessor
granting absolution and also a spiritual director.
Related Lives: Confessors
and Their Female Penitents, 1450-1750.
, who came from the ranks of the ordained clergy and religious orders, conducted the sacrament, which in addition to hearing the penitent's account of sinfulness, entailed assigning penance, and on judging it completed, pronouncing absolution.
A study of his confessors
and favoured preachers and of his relationship with the friars indicates a keen interest in theology.
Women, Men, and Spiritual Power provides a well-researched and insightful exploration of the dynamics of authority between female visionaries and their male confessors
between the twelfth and fourteenth centuries.
With Related Lives: Confessors
and Their Female Penitents, 1450-1750, Jodi Bilinkoff has made a substantial contribution to the study of early modern Catholicism.
It contains sections describing the bishop, presbyters, deacons, confessors
, widows, lectors, virgins, subdeacons, healers, neophyte Christians, and artisans and craftsmen.
expected listeners to be trustworthy and able to empathize and help them feel accepted.