mediation

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mediation,

in law, type of intervention in which the disputing parties accept the offer of a third party to recommend a solution for their controversy. Mediation has long been a part of international law, frequently involving the use of an international commission, in a process known as by conciliation. Mediation differs from arbitration in being a diplomatic rather than a judicial procedure; thus, the parties to the dispute are not bound to accept the mediator's recommendation. Resort to mediation has become increasingly frequent, both for internal and international disputes. The Declaration of Paris (1856) expressed the hope that the signatories would ask for mediation in their disputes. At the Second Hague Conference (1907), the right of friendly powers to offer mediation was recognized. The Covenant of the League of Nations provided that the whole League, acting through the League Council, should offer conciliation, and the Charter of the United Nations requires all members to submit disputes to mediation on recommendation of the Security Council. Mediation has been successful in many cases of international conflict. The United States served as mediator between Bolivia and Chile (1882) and between Russia and Japan (1905). The United Nations served as a mediator in the conflict in IsraelIsrael
, officially State of Israel, republic (2005 est. pop. 6,277,000, including Israelis in occupied Arab territories), 7,992 sq mi (20,700 sq km), SW Asia, on the Mediterranean Sea.
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 in 1948. In 1966, the Soviet Union mediated the border clashes between India and China. The Secretary-General of the United Nations mediated successfully in several international disputes, particularly that over Netherlands New Guinea (see PapuaPapua
or Irian Jaya
, province (2014 est pop. 3,486,000), 123,180 sq mi (319,036 sq km), Indonesia. Comprising most of the western half of New Guinea and a number of offshore islands, it is Indonesia's largest province; the extreme western peninsulas are now separated
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). Mediation has become increasingly important for internal disagreements as well, particularly in labor disputes. In the United States, the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service works toward a healthy relationship between labor and management, mediating disputes where necessary and promoting collective bargaining. Many state and local governments in the U.S. have similar organizations, each generally having the power to intervene when the public interest appears to be in jeopardy. National mediation services are also common in other nations, particularly among the Western democracies.

Mediation

 

in international law, a form of peaceful settlement of disputes between states by means of negotiations with the participation of a third state, the mediator, on the basis of conditions advanced by the mediator. Mediation differs from good offices in that the mediator suggests specific proposals to serve as the basis of negotiations and of the settlement of the disputes.

The procedure of mediation is regulated by the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 and the Charter of the United Nations (art. 33). According to the UN Charter, various conventions, and current practice, the mediator may offer his services upon the request of the disputing parties, upon his own initiative, or upon the initiative of powers not party to the dispute. There have been times when the Soviet government has accepted the mediation of other states and has itself been a mediator. For instance, in 1945 the USSR accepted the mediation of the French provisional government in negotiations with Switzerland on the status of persons interned during the war.

References in periodicals archive ?
The sixth graders' responses also demonstrated an integration of interpersonal conflict mediation and the analysis of media violence.
Conflict Mediation, Restorative Justice, and the Postmodern
Since the Second World War, the American Friends Service Committee and the British Friends - best-known as the Quakers - have been actively involved in conflict mediation, and at times have seconded some of their professional conciliators for assignments on behalf of the United Nations.
Chase 'N Yur Face Conflict Mediation Sat 9:30-5:00pm Sun 10-12:30; 4-5pm - 6hrs/2.
Advising managers of directorates or departments faced with problems with responsibility and Their Officials under psychological Ensuring media in conflict mediation,
He considers the strategic environment within which public interest activists operate, field-tested tools and processes for envisioning/planning/implementing campaigns, conducting public interest research and engaging the media, working for change in the state and corporate sector, physical protest and other forms of direct action, using technology and working on digital campaigns, litigation as campaign tactic, non-litigious conflict mediation, as well as insights into how to avoid burn-out.
Nematjan Pattaev, the Director of the WUA Omur-Suu, stressed that "one reason for the success of this programme has been the application of the mentoring method when less experienced WUAs received from their more experienced peers first-hand knowledge about efficient administration and budgeting, new irrigation methods to prevent soil salinisation and reduce the amount of water consumed, as well as ways of conflict mediation and resolution".
Saffer of the Mill Swan Neighborhood Watch group said she has experience working in conflict mediation, and said she understood there was a lot of tension and a lot of history in the room.
Such an ethos brought moral means to discourses and actions, as Gandhi's approach to conflict mediation illustrates.
Provide mentoring of at-risk and gang youths, counseling, referral services, gang conflict mediation and anti-gang programs at schools in the community.
In the aftermath of the Colorado school tragedy, Burbank officials are working on a citywide conflict mediation plan to help reach youngsters who feel disenfranchised and need help from adults.

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