conjoined twins

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conjoined twins,

congenitally united organisms that are complete or nearly complete individuals, historically known as Siamese twins. They develop from a single fertilized ovum that has divided imperfectly; complete division would produce identical twins, having the same sex and general characteristics. Conjoined twins remain attached at the abdomen, chest, back, or top of the head, depending on where the division of the ovum has failed. In some instances the individuals are joined only by a band of musculofibrous tissue and can be separated surgically, but in other instances they share vital organs and separation may not be possible. Sometimes an ovum divides in such a way that an organism develops having one body and two heads, or one head and two sets of limbs. About half of all conjoined twins are stillborn, and many die within a week or so of birth. When they do survive, fatal illness in one dooms the other unless separation is possible.

The name Siamese twins derives from the most famous of conjoined male twins, Chang and Eng, born in Siam (Thailand) of Chinese parents in 1811. They were exhibited in traveling shows worldwide for many years beginning in 1929. Retiring from touring in 1839, they settled in rural North Carolina, adopted the surname Bunker, and became U.S. citizens. Styling themselves as Southern gentlemen, they became prosperous slaveholders, married two sisters and fathered at least 21 children, and supported the Confederacy in the Civil War. They toured again for a while after the war. Never surgically separated, they died within several hours of each other in 1874.

See also multiple birthmultiple birth,
bringing forth of more than one offspring at birth. Although many smaller mammals bear several young at a time, multiple births are relatively uncommon in humans and other primates.
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Bibliography

See J. A. Orser, The Lives of Chang and Eng (2014) and Y. Huang, Inseparable (2018).

References in periodicals archive ?
Many conjoined twins die in the womb (stillborn) or die shortly after birth," according to the Mayo Clinic.
Conjoined twins, or twins whose bodies are connected, account for approximately one of every 200,000 live births.
We now have the facilities to perform ceasarian operations but the hospital has no capability to separate the conjoined twins," he said.
MRI report showed thoracopagus conjoined twins with single heart.
Conjoined twins, in most cases, have failed to survive even before birth.
Forced traction was applied to effect delivery of fetus, but was futile, hence further deep and detailed examination of fetus following its repulsion was done, revealing some additional lateral growth, simulating rib cage of another conjoined twin fetus, on right side of rib cage of fetus already in birth canal and it was locking the fetus at pelvic inlet when traction was applied.
She added that the thesis findings of many important results, including the River Abbasid has a high diversity of biological algae and conjoined with the presence of high contamination of algae, which is an indication of a vital pollution of the river while the study revealed that the presence of certain types of aquatic plants contributed significantly to reduce the proportion of industrial water pollution in one of the study sites near the plant of soft drinks in Kufa .
Whereas cross-linguistically the verb of a conjoined subject either agrees with the first of the two conjuncts called first conjunct agreement (FCA) or with the second conjunct called second conjunct agreement (SCA) or last conjunct agreement (LCA) Pashto ao conjoined subjects are different in the sense that the verb shows agreement neither with the first conjunct nor the last conjunct.
Summary: Conjoined twin baby girls have been released from a hospital in China almost three weeks .
2003: Conjoined twins die in separation op Conjoined Iranian twins, who volunteered to go ahead with a major operation to separate them, have both died during surgery.
Objective: To summarize our experience in the anesthetic management of conjoined twins undergoing one-stage surgical separation.
Moreover, Hadi directed the Minister of Public Health and Population to quickly transfer conjoined twins born with one head accompanied by their parents to a hospital in Saudi Arabia to perform the separation surgery.