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After characterizing the model, the oil flooding is done using a very precise syringe pump and the connate water is measured (Figure 1).
Higher concentrations of chloride are attributed to zones of fault-related discharge, and typically increase basinward where marine sediments with saline connate water are dominant.
Depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs that are filled with connate water (fully water-saturated reservoirs) offer limited storage capacity.
The special issues related to oil sand processing arising from the combined trace minerals, dissolved gases, connate water, unrelated organic matter attached to the mineral matter are treated thoroughly.
The first step in the investigation concluded that the water that resided in the pipeline was a combination of the connate water produced from the reservoir and water formed from condensing vapor caused by changes in the pressure and temperature conditions in the pipeline.
The greater part of the sediment is therefore flushed and groundwater is rarely stagnant except in those places where saline, presumably connate water entrapped in aquicludes, persist in depth.
Thus the pore spaces between clay-sized particles may still contain connate water that was present when the clay was deposited.
wc]) is the relative permeability to oil at the connate water saturation, fraction; [[mu].
If the matrix materials have never had their connate waters removed by desiccation and/or the historical lowering of water tables in the region, does this mean that all regional dewatering has been along fractures and matrix borders only?