conscientious objector

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conscientious objector,

person who, on the grounds of conscience, resists the authority of the state to compel military service. Such resistance, emerging in time of war, may be based on membership in a pacifistic religious sect, such as the Society of FriendsFriends, Religious Society of,
religious body originating in England in the middle of the 17th cent. under George Fox. The members are commonly called Quakers, originally a term of derision.
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 (Quakers), the DukhoborsDukhobors
or Doukhobors
[Russ.,=spirit wrestlers], religious group, prominent in Russia from the 18th to the 19th cent. The name was coined by the Orthodox opponents of the Dukhobors, who had originally called themselves Christians of the Universal Brotherhood.
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, or Jehovah's WitnessesJehovah's Witnesses,
Christian group originating in the United States at the end of the 19th cent., organized by Charles Taze Russell, whose doctrine centers on the Second Coming of Christ.
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, or on personal religious or humanitarian convictions. Political opposition to the particular aim of conscription, such as that maintained by the CopperheadsCopperheads,
in the American Civil War, a reproachful term for those Northerners sympathetic to the South, mostly Democrats outspoken in their opposition to the Lincoln administration. They were especially strong in Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio, where Clement L.
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 during the Civil War, by radical groups during World War I and, to a more limited extent, during World War II, and by large numbers during the Vietnam War, is usually considered in a separate category. The problem of conscientious objectors, although present in different forms since the beginning of the Christian era, became acute in World Wars I and II because of the urgent demands for manpower of the warring governments. The United States and Great Britain allowed members of recognized pacifistic religious groups to substitute for combat service: (1) noncombatant military service, (2) nonmilitary activity related to the war effort, or (3) activity considered socially valuable. Pacifists without recognized claim to exemption were liable to harsher treatment, and about 5,000 conscientious objectors were imprisoned in the United States between 1940 and 1945. The postwar Selective Service Act, passed in 1948 and amended in 1951, required that conscientious objection be based on religious belief and training that included belief in a Supreme Being. In 1970 the Supreme Court removed the religious requirement and allowed objection based on a deeply held and coherent ethical system with no reference to a Supreme Being. In 1971 the Supreme Court refused to allow objection to a particular war, a decision affecting thousands of objectors to the Vietnam War. Some 50,000–100,000 men are estimated to have left the United States to avoid being drafted to serve in that war.

Bibliography

See G. C. Field, Pacifism and Conscientious Objection (1945); M. Q. Sibley and P. E. Jacob, Conscription of Conscience (1952, repr. 1965); L. Schlissel, ed., Conscience in America (1968); G. C. Zahn, War, Conscience, and Dissent (1967); M. Ferber and S. Lynd, The Resistance (1971).

References in periodicals archive ?
Those who engage in conscientious objection to military service and conscientious objection to sending their children to public schools have a broad range of motivations for doing so, and this broad range runs along parallel tracks for each.
Even those of us who feel she exaggerates, however, could agree with Lynch that a strict prohibition on conscientious objection is inappropriate.
I began to imagine some soldier who might be wondering about conscientious objection, and I intuitively began to address that person.
One resolution emphasized that states should not imprison conscientious objectors for failure to perform military service and called on states to establish independent and impartial decision-making bodies to determine whether a person has a genuine conscientious objection.
The American Medical Association (AMA 2008) does not define conscience, mentions it only as it relates to medical students, and takes no official position on conscientious objection.
Likewise, those of a Judeo-Christian tradition may also come up against difficulties when trying to demonstrate their sincerity to a military officer of the same religion--one who simply might not understand how their own faith could allow for conscientious objection to war.
The twentieth century receives the most attention, and there is a certain concentration on religious objectors, but this is understandable given the connection between allowance for conscientious objection and the formation of a mature state, along with the fact that religious prohibition against military service has, until very recently, been key for recognition of exemption from military service on the grounds of conscience.
According to Kasher and Sagi, conscientious objection is, by definition, divorced from politics; therefore anyone who refuses to serve in the military because he or she wants to end Israel's occupation of the Palestinian territories (a political position) simply cannot be a conscientious objector.
It can only be hoped that more care than that displayed to date in other Anglican jurisdictions will be offered by the Australian church to its members who retain a conscientious objection to women bishops.
In line with the natural law manualists' efforts to discern degrees of personal culpability, the authors of these chapters explore in healthcare and medical practices the determination of licit or illicit cooperation in another's evil or wrongdoing--practices such as research or therapeutic use of stem cells derived from aborted fetuses, other uses of embryonic/fetal material, physician-assisted suicide, legislation and votes for/against legislators, and conscientious objection.